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  1. A diverse community of microbes naturally exists on the phylloplane, the surface of leaves. It is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth and bacteria are the most abundant members, living in com...

    Authors: Vincent Stevens, Sofie Thijs and Jaco Vangronsveld

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Magnetosome formation in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is controlled by more than 30 known mam and mms genes clustered within a large genomic region, the ‘magnetosome island’ (MAI), wh...

    Authors: Theresa Zwiener, Frank Mickoleit, Marina Dziuba, Christian Rückert, Tobias Busche, Jörn Kalinowski, Damien Faivre, René Uebe and Dirk Schüler

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To date, information on healthy female urinary microbiota is available mostly at genus level and at one time point. However, profound species-level characterization of healthy urinary microbiome and its stabil...

    Authors: Magdalena Ksiezarek, Svetlana Ugarcina-Perovic, Joana Rocha, Filipa Grosso and Luísa Peixe

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens exists in two phenotypically different forms, designated as primary (1°) and secondary (2°) cells. Upon yet unknown environmental stimuli up to 50% of the ...

    Authors: Simone Eckstein, Jannis Brehm, Michael Seidel, Mats Lechtenfeld and Ralf Heermann

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:63

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Biofilm formation is an important causative factor in the expansion of the carious lesions in the enamel. Hence, new approaches to efficient antibacterial agents are highly demanded. This study was conducted t...

    Authors: Shima Afrasiabi, Abbas Bahador and Alireza Partoazar

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:62

    Content type: Research article

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  6. As a kind of potential probiotic, Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in human body is directly causally related to obesity, diabetes, inflammation and abnormal metabolism. In this study, A. muciniphila dynamic cul...

    Authors: Zhitao Li, Guoao Hu, Li Zhu, Zhenglong Sun, Yun Jiang, Min-jie Gao and Xiaobei Zhan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Treatment options for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) infections were limited. We assessed the efficacy of ceftazidime (CAZ), ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI), aztreonam (ATM), and aztreonam-avibacta...

    Authors: Qiuxia Lin, Hua Zou, Xian Chen, Menglu Wu, Deyu Ma, Hanbing Yu, Siqiang Niu and Shifeng Huang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Stool metabolites provide essential insights into the function of the gut microbiome. The current gold standard for storage of stool samples for metabolomics is flash-freezing at − 80 °C which can be inconveni...

    Authors: Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Shira Levy, Masouma Mohamed, Alaa Abdelghani, Anne M. Evans, Luke A. D. Miller, Lopa Mehta, Sean Moore, Elizaveta Freinkman and Suchitra K. Hourigan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  9. A severe form of pneumonia, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization is widespread on the whole world. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was pro...

    Authors: Tianyi Gao, Yingdong Gao, Xiangxiang Liu, Zhenlin Nie, Huilin Sun, Kang Lin, Hongxin Peng and Shukui Wang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of chronic mastitis, and can form a biofilm that is difficult to completely remove once formed. Disinfectants are effective against S. aureus, but their activity is ea...

    Authors: Jun Song, Hongri Ruan, Li Chen, Yuqi Jin, Jiasan Zheng, Rui Wu and Dongbo Sun

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in the patients’ feces, which could lead to fecal–oral transmission. Therefore, fecal sample testing with real-tim...

    Authors: Ranran Cao, Lirong Bao, Ming Pan, Cheng Zhang, Hongyu Liao, Li Liu, Yan Li and Mingyuan Li

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Genomic islands (GIs) play an important role in the chromosome diversity of Enterococcus. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the spread of GIs between Enterococcus strains and their correlation with an...

    Authors: Weiwei Li and Ailan Wang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:55

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Medical film dressings have been used to obtain skin microbiota for skin microbiome studies, although their adhesive force may be so strong that the skin could be injured when applied to those who have fragile...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Ogai, Kana Shibata, Natsuki Takahashi, Kohei Ogura, Shigefumi Okamoto and Junko Sugama

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect 15 million women each year in the United States, with > 20% experiencing frequent recurrent UTIs. A recent placebo-controlled clinical trial found a 39% reduction in UTI ...

    Authors: Timothy J. Straub, Wen-Chi Chou, Abigail L. Manson, Henry L. Schreiber IV, Bruce J. Walker, Christopher A. Desjardins, Sinéad B. Chapman, Kerrie L. Kaspar, Orsalem J. Kahsai, Elizabeth Traylor, Karen W. Dodson, Meredith A. J. Hullar, Scott J. Hultgren, Christina Khoo and Ashlee M. Earl

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:53

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Straw retention is a substitute for chemical fertilizers, which effectively maintain organic matter and improve microbial communities on agricultural land. The purpose of this study was to provide sufficient i...

    Authors: Caifang Zhang, Zhaoli Lin, Youxiong Que, Nyumah Fallah, Muhammad Tayyab, Shiyan Li, Jun Luo, Zichu Zhang, Ahmad Yusuf Abubakar and Hua Zhang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Escherichia coli K1 causes neonatal meningitis. Transcriptome studies are indispensable to comprehend the pathology and biology of these bacteria. Recently, we showed that nanoparticles loaded with Hesperidin are...

    Authors: Abdulkader Masri, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Zarul Hanifah Md Zoqratt, Qasim Ayub, Ayaz Anwar, Komal Rao, Muhammad Raza Shah and Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Degradation of acetone by aerobic and nitrate-reducing bacteria can proceed via carboxylation to acetoacetate and subsequent thiolytic cleavage to two acetyl residues. A different strategy was identified in th...

    Authors: Jasmin Frey, Sophie Kaßner, Dieter Spiteller, Mario Mergelsberg, Matthias Boll, David Schleheck and Bernhard Schink

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intestinal pathogen capable of infecting a wide range of animals. It initiates infection by invading intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system enc...

    Authors: Selwan Hamed, Riham M. Shawky, Mohamed Emara, James M. Slauch and Christopher V. Rao

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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  19. This study illustrates for the first time the performance (sensitivity and selectivity) of the selective medium BCYEα +AB suggested by the new edition of ISO 11731 for legionella isolation and enumeration. We ...

    Authors: Savina Ditommaso, Monica Giacomuzzi, Gabriele Memoli, Jacopo Garlasco and Carla M. Zotti

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Gut microbiota is critical in maintaining human health, of which diversity and abundance are subject to significantly reduce in seniors. Gut microbiota is reported to be stable across the long adulthood in gen...

    Authors: Junkui Chen, Xionge Pi, Wei Liu, Qunfang Ding, Xin Wang, Weiguo Jia and Liying Zhu

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:47

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The microbiota plays an important role in host health. Although rubidium (Rb) has been used to study its effects on depression and cancers, the interaction between microbial commensals and Rb is still unexplor...

    Authors: Qian Chen, Zhiguo He, Yuting Zhuo, Shuzhen Li, Wenjing Yang, Liang Hu and Hui Zhong

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:46

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In caries, low pH drives selection and enrichment of acidogenic and aciduric bacteria in oral biofilms, and development of acid tolerance in early colonizers is thought to play a key role in this shift. Since ...

    Authors: Gabriella Boisen, Julia R. Davies and Jessica Neilands

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The proliferation and survival of microbial organisms including intestinal microbes are determined by their surrounding environments. Contrary to popular myth, the nutritional and chemical compositions, water ...

    Authors: Enkhchimeg Lkhagva, Hea-Jong Chung, Jinny Hong, Wai Hong Wilson Tang, Sang-Il Lee, Seong-Tshool Hong and Seungkoo Lee

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:44

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Microbial organisms encounter a variety of environmental conditions, including changes to metal ion availability. Metal ions play an important role in many biological processes for growth and survival. As such...

    Authors: A. Sukumaran, S. Pladwig and J. Geddes-McAlister

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:43

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) found in D-fructose rich niches prefer D-fructose over D-glucose as a growth substrate. They need electron acceptors for growth on D-glucose. The organisms share carboh...

    Authors: Shintaro Maeno, Hiroya Nishimura, Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Leon Dicks, Masanori Arita and Akihito Endo

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:41

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Melatonin (MT), ubiquitous in almost all organisms, functions as a free radical scavenger. Despite several reports on its role as an antioxidant in animals, plants, and some microorganisms, extensive studies i...

    Authors: Yang Yu, Zhaowei Teng, Zongmin Mou, Yan Lv, Tao Li, Suiyun Chen, Dake Zhao and Zhiwei Zhao

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:40

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Increase in the number of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria in neutropenic cancer patients has prompted the search for novel therapeutic agents having dual anticancer and antimicrobial properties. Ba...

    Authors: Preeti Sharma, Sumanpreet Kaur, Bhupinder Singh Chadha, Raminderjit Kaur, Manpreet Kaur and Sukhraj Kaur

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:39

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains represent a worldwide health problem. These stains are usually carrying mutations within the 23S rRNA gene associated with clarithromycin resistanc...

    Authors: Aalaa Mahgoub Albasha, Maram M. Elnosh, Esraa Hassan Osman, Duha M. Zeinalabdin, Amira A. M. Fadl, Musa Abdalla Ali and Hisham N. Altayb

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:38

    Content type: Research article

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  29. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Chun-mei Chen, Min Wang, Xian-ping Li, Peng-ling Li, Jing-jing Tian, Kan Zhang and Can Luo

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:37

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Microbiology 2021 21:25

  30. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a major source of healthcare-associated infection with a high risk of recurrence, attributable to many factors such as usage of antibiotics, older age and immunocompromised...

    Authors: Maria Kulecka, Edyta Waker, Filip Ambrozkiewicz, Agnieszka Paziewska, Karolina Skubisz, Patrycja Cybula, Łukasz Targoński, Michał Mikula, Jan Walewski and Jerzy Ostrowski

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:36

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Species-level genetic characterization of complex bacterial communities has important clinical applications in both diagnosis and treatment. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene has proven ...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Shinnosuke Komiya, Yoshiaki Yasumizu, Yuki Yasuoka, Katsura Mizushima, Tomohisa Takagi, Kirill Kryukov, Aisaku Fukuda, Yoshiharu Morimoto, Yuji Naito, Hidetaka Okada, Hidemasa Bono, So Nakagawa and Kiichi Hirota

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:35

    Content type: Methodology article

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  32. Paromomycin is a 2-deoxystreptamine aminocyclitol aminoglycoside antibiotic with broad spectrum activity against Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and many protozoa. This study introduces a strategy for pa...

    Authors: Ghadir S. El-Housseiny, Asmaa A. Ibrahim, Mahmoud A. Yassien and Khaled M. Aboshanab

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Priscilla C. Barger, Mark R. Liles, Benjamin H. Beck and Joseph C. Newton

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:33

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Microbiology 2021 21:8

  34. DNA binding KfrA-type proteins of broad-host-range bacterial plasmids belonging to IncP-1 and IncU incompatibility groups are characterized by globular N-terminal head domains and long alpha-helical coiled-coi...

    Authors: M. Adamczyk, E. Lewicka, R. Szatkowska, H. Nieznanska, J. Ludwiczak, M. Jasiński, S. Dunin-Horkawicz, E. Sitkiewicz, B. Swiderska, G. Goch and G. Jagura-Burdzy

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:32

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Early 2020, a COVID-19 epidemic became a public health emergency of international concern. To address this pandemic broad testing with an easy, comfortable and reliable testing method is of utmost concern. Nas...

    Authors: Tania Desmet, Peter De Paepe, Jerina Boelens, Liselotte Coorevits, Elizaveta Padalko, Stien Vandendriessche, Isabel Leroux-Roels, Annelies Aerssens, Steven Callens, Eva Van Braeckel, Thomas Malfait, Frank Vermassen and Bruno Verhasselt

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Studies on the rhizosphere microbiome of various plants proved that rhizosphere microbiota carries out various vital functions and can regulate the growth and improve the yield of plants. However, the rhizosph...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Wei Wang, Zhangjun Shen, Jingjing Wang, Yajun Chen, Dong Wang, Gang Liu and Maozhen Han

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:30

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Salmonella enterica remains a leading cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Serotype information is important in food safety and public health activities to reduce the burden of salmonellosis. In the current st...

    Authors: Assèta Kagambèga, Lari M. Hiott, David S. Boyle, Elizabeth A. McMillan, Poonam Sharma, Sushim K. Gupta, Hazem Ramadan, Sohyun Cho, Shaheen B. Humayoun, Tiffanie A. Woodley, Nicolas Barro, Charlene R. Jackson and Jonathan G. Frye

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:29

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Several Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) schemes have been developed for Chlamydia trachomatis. Bom’s MLST scheme for MLST is based on nested PCR amplification and sequencing of five hypervariable genes and ompA

    Authors: Shlomo Pilo, Gal Zizelski Valenci, Mor Rubinstein, Lea Pichadze, Yael Scharf, Zeev Dveyrin, Efrat Rorman and Israel Nissan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:28

    Content type: Methodology article

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  39. Zinc uptake-regulator (Zur)-regulated lipoprotein A (ZrlA) plays a role in bacterial fitness and overcoming antimicrobial exposure in Acinetobacter baumannii. This study further characterized the zrlA gene and it...

    Authors: Nayeong Kim, Hyo Jeong Kim, Man Hwan Oh, Se Yeon Kim, Mi Hyun Kim, Joo Hee Son, Seung Il Kim, Minsang Shin, Yoo Chul Lee and Je Chul Lee

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:27

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Studies of the gut microbiome are becoming increasingly important. Such studies require stool collections that can be processed or frozen in a timely manner so as not to alter the microbial content. Due to the...

    Authors: Meghan I. Short, Robert Hudson, Benjamin D. Besasie, Kelly R. Reveles, Dimpy P. Shah, Susannah Nicholson, Teresa L. Johnson-Pais, Korri Weldon, Zhao Lai, Robin J. Leach, Bernard Fongang and Michael A. Liss

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:26

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of hospital-associated (HA) infections. It has been reported that gastrointestinal colonization (GI) is likely to be a common and significant reservoir for the transmissio...

    Authors: Chun-mei Chen, Min Wang, Xian-ping Li, Peng-ling Li, Jing-jing Tian, Kan Zhang and Can Luo

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:25

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Microbiology 2021 21:37

  42. Berberine (BBR) is a plant-based nutraceutical that has been used for millennia to treat diarrheal infections and in contemporary medicine to improve patient lipid profiles. Reduction in lipids, particularly c...

    Authors: Patricia G. Wolf, Saravanan Devendran, Heidi L. Doden, Lindsey K. Ly, Tyler Moore, Hajime Takei, Hiroshi Nittono, Tsuyoshi Murai, Takao Kurosawa, George E. Chlipala, Stefan J. Green, Genta Kakiyama, Purna Kashyap, Vance J. McCracken, H. Rex Gaskins, Patrick M. Gillevet…

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:24

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Since its discovery in 2007, the importance of the human gut bacterium Prevotella copri (P. copri) has been widely recognized with its links to diet and health status and potential as next generation probiotic. T...

    Authors: Phebe Verbrugghe, Olivier Van Aken, Frida Hållenius and Anne Nilsson

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:23

    Content type: Methodology article

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  44. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. HuNoVs can be detected in vitro using molecular assays such as RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. However, these molec...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Feifeng Lu, Chenang Lyu, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Peng Tian, Liang Xue, Ting Xu and Dapeng Wang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:22

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative bacterium which causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Genome plasticity has given rise to a wide range of strain variation with respect to antimicr...

    Authors: Ranashia L. Boone, Briana Whitehead, Tyra M. Avery, Jacky Lu, Jamisha D. Francis, Miriam A. Guevara, Rebecca E. Moore, Schuyler A. Chambers, Ryan S. Doster, Shannon D. Manning, Steven D. Townsend, Leon Dent, Dana Marshall, Jennifer A. Gaddy and Steven M. Damo

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:21

    Content type: Research article

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  46. The analysis of blow microbiota has been proposed as a biomarker for respiratory health analysis in cetaceans. Yet, we lack crucial knowledge on the long-term stability of the blow microbiota and its potential...

    Authors: Catharina Vendl, Tiffanie Nelson, Belinda Ferrari, Torsten Thomas and Tracey Rogers

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:20

    Content type: Research article

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  47. The porcine respiratory tract harbours multiple microorganisms, and the interactions between these organisms could be associated with animal health status. Pasteurella multocida is a culturable facultative anaero...

    Authors: Nonzee Hanchanachai, Pramote Chumnanpuen and Teerasak E-kobon

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:19

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Continuous cropping of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in farmland for an extended period gives rise to soil-borne disease. The change in soil microbial composition is a major cause of soil-borne disease...

    Authors: Ai-Zi Tong, Wei Liu, Qiang Liu, Guang-Qing Xia and Jun-Yi Zhu

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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  49. The gut microbiome is essential for the host’s health and serves as an essential reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). We investigated the effects of different factors, including the dietary shifts ...

    Authors: Ghulam Raza Mustafa, Caiwu Li, Siyue Zhao, Lei Jin, Xueping He, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Yongguo He, Ti Li, Wenwen Deng, Lin Xu, Yaowu Xiong, Guiquan Zhang, Hemin Zhang, Yan Huang and Likou Zou

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2021 21:15

    Content type: Research article

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