- Research article
- Open Access
Expression of extra-cellular levansucrase in Pseudomonas syringae is controlled by the in planta fitness-promoting metabolic repressor HexR
- Amna Mehmood†1,
- Khaled Abdallah†1,
- Shaunak Khandekar1,
- Daria Zhurina1,
- Abhishek Srivastava1,
- Nehaya Al-Karablieh1, 2,
- Gabriela Alfaro-Espinoza1,
- Daniel Pletzer1 and
- Matthias S Ullrich1Email author
© Mehmood et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
- Received: 30 October 2014
- Accepted: 15 January 2015
- Published: 26 February 2015
Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 causes bacterial blight on soybean plants and enters the leaf tissue through stomata or open wounds, where it encounters a sucrose-rich milieu. Sucrose is utilized by invading bacteria via the secreted enzyme, levansucrase (Lsc), liberating glucose and forming the polyfructan levan. P. syringae PG4180 possesses two functional lsc alleles transcribed at virulence-promoting low temperatures.
We hypothesized that transcription of lsc is controlled by the hexose metabolism repressor, HexR, since potential HexR binding sites were identified upstream of both lsc genes. A hexR mutant of PG4180 was significantly growth-impaired when incubated with sucrose or glucose as sole carbon source, but exhibited wild type growth when arabinose was provided. Analyses of lsc expression resulted in higher transcript and protein levels in the hexR mutant as compared to the wild type. The hexR mutant’s ability to multiply in planta was reduced. HexR did not seem to impact hrp gene expression as evidenced by the hexR mutant’s unaltered hypersensitive response in tobacco and its unmodified protein secretion pattern as compared to the wild type under hrp-inducing conditions.
Our data suggested a co-regulation of genes involved in extra-cellular sugar acquisition with those involved in intra-cellular energy-providing metabolic pathways in P. syringae.
- Plant pathogen
- Bacterial blight
- Pseudomonas syringae
- Hexose metabolism
Fructan or glucan polymers are formed wherever microbes encounter sucrose-rich conditions, would it be in association with plants, in the oral cavity, in food manufacturing, or during bio-fuel production processes . When plant-borne sucrose is present, the soybean-infecting bacterial blight pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, uses levansucrase (EC 184.108.40.206, Lsc) to synthesize the extra-cellular high-molecular fructofuranan, levan, thereby releasing glucose for primary metabolism. Three levansucrase-encoding genes, lscA, lscB, and lscC, were identified in P. syringae pv. glycinea PG4180, from which only lscB and lscC are expressed, as a mutant lacking lscB and lscC but possessing lscA is levan-deficient . Furthermore quantitative expression analysis of lsc genes by quantitative Reverse Transcriptase (qRT)-PCR showed that lscB and lscC are actively expressed. However lscA is not being expressed due to an altered upstream region of lscA which does not seem to promote lsc expression . Both enzymes are synthesized maximally at 18°C in vitro and in planta and their expression is optimal at the early logarithmic growth stage [4,5].
Bacterial communities growing epiphytically on plants are primarily affected by carbon availability as supported by the finding that very low sugar concentrations are sufficient to support the growth of 107 to 108 cells per leaf . Stomatal openings and wounds provide the site of entry for P. syringae. Under favorable micro-environmental conditions, the bacterial cells live endophytically and subsequently initiate the infection process via production of the phytotoxin coronatine [7,8] and attachment to plant cell surfaces. The infection process is fostered by low environmental temperatures such as 18-20°C as opposed to the optimal growth temperature of P. syringae, 28°C [9,10]. A complex sequence of events mediated by injection of bacterial hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity (Hrp) effector proteins into plant cells  ultimately activates plant-borne K+ efflux and H+ influx, which increases the apoplastic pH from 5.5 to 7.5 . Subsequently, this high extra-cellular pH induces efflux of the dominant photo assimilate, sucrose, from plant cells . Apoplastic sucrose ranging in concentrations from 20 μM to 1–5 mM is hydrolyzed by either plant-borne invertases or by extra-cellular microbial enzymes, e.g. Lsc [13,14].
For glucose metabolism, metabolic pathway structures vary among bacterial species with different ecological niches . In contrast to enterobacteria , pseudomonads utilize the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway due to lack of 6-phosphofructokinase and hence do not catabolize sugars via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway [17,18]. The ED pathway can be linear, alternative, modified with non-phosphorylated intermediates, or cyclic  and was first described in Pseudomonas saccharophila, which now belongs to the order Burkholderiales [17,20].
The genes required for glucose metabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 are organized in several operons . The first operon consists of the zwf, pgl, and eda genes coding for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconolactonase (both enzymes of the glucose phosphorylative pathway), and Eda (an enzyme of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway) [22,23]. Divergently directed to this operon is the gene encoding for the hexose metabolic repressor, hexR . The second operon consists of the edd and glk genes that encode 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase (the first enzyme of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway) and glucokinase (an enzyme of the glucose phosphorylative pathway), respectively [22,23]. Divergently directed to this operon is the gene gap1 which codes for glyceraldehydes 3-phosphoste dehydrogenase . The transcription of these genes and operons is negatively regulated by HexR. Two monomers of HexR bind to the promoter regions of edd, zwf, and gap-1 genes by recognizing a palindromic sequence TTGTN7–8ACAA [21,23-25]. In the current study, it was hypothesized that in P. syringae not only genes involved in cellular glucose metabolism but also genes encoding extra-cellular Lsc were controlled by HexR. In turn, this might have consequences for our understanding about what determines bacterial in planta fitness and potentially virulence.
In order to address this hypothesis, a hexR mutant was generated in PG4180 and tested for its growth in minimal medium containing glucose, sucrose, or arabinose as sole carbon source. Analyses of lsc expression by qRT-PCR and Western blotting were conducted for the PG4180 wild type and its hexR mutant. The mutant was compared to the wild type in terms of its in planta fitness. Furthermore, hypersensitive response (HR) reactions and profiles of secreted proteins were compared for the wild type and the hexR mutant when grown under hrp-inducing conditions.
Bacterial strains, plasmids and growth conditions
Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study
Relevant characteristics a
supE44 ΔlacU169 (Φ80 lacZΔM15) hsdR17 recA1 endA1 gyrA96 thi-1 relA1
Pseudomonas syringae pv. Glycinea
wild type, levan+
Kmr, hexR mutant of PG4180, levan++
Kmr, helper plasmid
Cmr, broad-host-range cloning vector
Tcr, broad-host-range cloning vector
Apr, vector for cloning of PCR products
Apr, oriT+ sacB+ gene replacement vector
Source of Km cassette flanked with FRT sequences
Apr, contains 456-bp upstream region of hexR
Apr, contains 360-bp downstream region of hexR
Apr, Km, 1230-bp KpnI fragment containing Km-FRT cassette of pFKm1 cloned into pGEM.hexR1
Apr, Km, 360-bp BamHI-SpeI fragment of pGEM.hexR2 cloned into pGEM.hexR1-Km
Apr, Km, 2046-bp EcoRI fragment of pGEM.hexR-Km cloned into pEX18Ap
Generation of hexR mutant in PG4180
Oligonucleotide primers used in this study
Nucleotide sequence (5′ to 3′)
GGATCC GGTACC CAGCCGCTATCCGATCGAG
Verification of the hexR mutant’s phenotype by Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)
Template-specific primers were designed for hexR and lscB/C genes of P. syringae PG4180. Bacterial cells were grown in HS + arabinose medium and harvested at an OD600 of 0.5. RNA was extracted by acid phenol/chloroform extraction method . RT-PCR was performed on total RNA using RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Scientific, Schwerte, Germany). The hexR_fwd, hexR_rev, hexR-verif_fwd, hexR_verif_rev and lscB/C primers were used to check for presence of a hexR and lscB/C mRNA by PCR using cDNA as template. Regular PCR with the same primer-pairs and genomic DNA as template were used as control. The thermocycler program was as follows: 1 cycle of 95°C for 60 s; 30 cycles of 95°C for 10 s, 60°C for 30 s, 72°C for 30 s; 1 cycle of 72°C for 5 min. The results were analyzed by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis.
Analysis of lsc expression by quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR)
Bacterial cells were grown in HS + arabinose medium at 18°C. When cultures reached respective OD600 values, total RNA was isolated by acid phenol/chloroform extraction, and samples were normalized by multiplexed fluorescent Northern hybridization and 23S rRNA transcript amount comparison as described previously . Yield and purity of RNA were determined by measuring absorption at 260 and 280 nm. Total RNA samples were treated with TURBO DNA-free (Applied Biosystems, Darmstadt, Germany) to remove remaining traces of genomic DNA as described by the manufacturer’s recommendation.
SYBR green-based qRT-PCR was performed with 1 ng normalized RNA template and 200 nM primers (lscBC_RT_fwd, lscBC_RT_rev) using the QuantiTect SYBR Green one-step RT-PCR Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The thermocycler program comprised an initial step of 95°C for 15 min followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 30 s, 55°C for 30 s, 72°C for 30 s. Reactions were performed in technical duplicates and biological triplicates with a Mastercycler® realplex2 real-time PCR system (Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany) as described by the manufacturer using their universal program. Reactions with no addition of reverse transcriptase served as negative controls and proved lack of DNA contamination. Specificity of amplification was assessed by analyzing the melting curve of the amplification product. Due to very high sequence identity between lscB and lscC it was not possible to design primers discriminating between these two mRNAs, thereby expression profile of lsc is always referred as a combination of both genes.
Immunological detection of Lsc
Generation and concentration of cell-free supernatants of P. syringae cells and the use of polyclonal antibodies were carried out as described previously . Cultures were grown in HS+ arabinose medium. Equal aliquots of protein fractions were loaded (0.5, 2.5 and 5 µg/lane) and separated by 10% SDS-PAGE. Electrophoresis, electro-blotting on nitrocellulose membranes, and immunodetection were conducted by standard procedures .
Growth of PG4180 wild type and hexR mutant in planta
In planta growth of PG4180 and its hexR mutant was evaluated on soybean plants. Soybean seedlings were germinated and grown in an environmentally controlled chamber for approximately three weeks prior to the growth assays. PG4180 wild type and hexR mutant were incubated for 48 h at 28°C on MG agar plates. Cells were suspended in distilled water, adjusted to an OD600 of 0.1 (corresponding to approximately 107 CFU/ml) and applied to the leaves with an airbrush (~8 psi) until the leaf surfaces were uniformly wet. Subsequently, humid environment was achieved by enclosing the inoculated plants with a clear plastic bag for overnight. Inoculated plants were grown in a plant growth chamber (19-21°C) with a 12-hr light period. At days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 14 after inoculations, two individual leaves were randomly excised from plants corresponding to each inoculums and their weight was measured. Epiphytic bacteria were isolated by placing leaves in a 50-ml falcon tubes containing 20 ml of external wash buffer (0.1 M potassium phosphate, 0.1% bactopeptone and pH = 7.0) and the tubes were sonicated for 7 minutes . Leaves were then removed and macerated in 20 ml of isotonic solution (0.9% NaCl) using sterile mortar and pestle. Bacterial counts (CFU/g fresh weight) were determined by plating dilutions from external wash buffer and leaf homogenate onto MG agar and counting of fluorescent colonies after incubation at 28°C for 96 h.
Hypersensitive response assay on tobacco
Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petit Havana SR1) were grown in a light chamber at 20 to 25°C, 60% humidity, with a 12-h photoperiod (15,000 lux). PG4180 wild type and hexR mutant were incubated for 48 h at 28°C on MG agar. Cells were suspended in sterile 0.9% NaCl, adjusted to an OD600 of 0.1 (corresponding to approximately 107 CFU/ml). Tobacco plants were inoculated with bacterial suspensions by syringe injection of leaf veins of the third and fourth leaf. As negative control sterile 0.9% NaCl was used. Infiltrated areas were monitored for development of the hypersensitive reaction in form of necrosis after 24 and 48 h.
Extra-cellular protein pool preparation and SDS-PAGE
For sample preparation of secreted proteins, bacteria were grown in two consecutive overnight pre-cultures in King’s B broth  at 28°C. From the first pre-culture, the cell suspension was adjusted to an OD600 of 0.1 with 50 ml of fresh King’s B broth and incubated at 28°C. Bacterial cultures were harvested at an OD600 of 1.0 and centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 30 min. The bacterial cells were washed two times with Hrp-inducing medium [37,38] or with HS+ glucose medium , respectively. Subsequently, the cell pellets were resusp ended in 50 ml of Hrp-inducing medium or HS+ glucose medium at 28°C and incubated shaking at 250 rpm for 4 h. Next, 25 ml of the bacterial cultures were centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 30 min. Cell-free supernatant samples were prepared by filter-sterilization through 0.2-μm pore size membrane filters and concentrated 50-fold using 10-kDa millipore filters (Amicon, Billerica, USA). Extra-cellular protein samples were stabilized in 50 mM Tris–HCl (pH 8.8). Total protein amounts were determined using a Nanodrop apparatus (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Langenselbold, Germany), 10 μl of protein samples were separated by 12.5% SDS-PAGE and subsequently visualized by silver staining according to established procedures .
Generation and genotypic characterization of the P. syringae hexR mutant
T del Castillo, E Duque and JL Ramos  and A Daddaoua, T Krell and JL Ramos  had previously shown that genes encoding enzymes of the phosphorylative branch and the ED pathway of glucose catabolism in P. putida were regulated by the hexose metabolism repressor, HexR. In P. syringae, extra-cellular Lsc releases glucose by sucrose hydrolysis. In order to investigate the impact of HexR on expression of lscB and lscC genes, a hexR-deficient mutant of P. syringae PG4180 was generated by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette in the hexR gene as a result of homologous recombination. The resulting mutant genotype was verified by growth on kanamycin-containing medium and RT-PCR analysis (Additional file 1: Figure S1).
In silico analysis of HexR binding site upstream of lsc genes
Comparison of different HexR protein sequences
Multiple sequence alignments of several HexR protein sequences derived from Lsc-producing P. syringae strains revealed that those proteins have a high pair-wise identity scores of >97% (data not shown). PFAM analysis  of these proteins showed that there is a DNA binding domain (PFAM01418) and a sugar isomerase (SIS) binding domain (PFAM 01380) as described for P. putida KT2440 by A Daddaoua, T Krell and JL Ramos  (Additional file 2: Figure S2) suggesting a similar way of enzymatic activity. A consensus sequence obtained from multiple alignments of HexR sequences from several P. syringae strains revealed 91% identity at the amino acid sequence level to that of P. putida (Additional file 3: Figure S3).
In vitro and in planta growth of P. syringae PG4180 and its hexR mutant
When glucose was replaced by an equal amount of 20 g/ml (133 mM) arabinose as the sole carbon source, growth of the hexR mutant was not distinguishable from that of the wild type indicating that HexR might not be involved in regulation of pathways utilizing arabinose, and that the hexR mutant growth phenotype was restricted to glucose utilization (Figure 2). For the wild type, sucrose apparently allowed for a faster adaptation as sucrose-supplemented cultures grew faster during early logarithmic growth. No significant difference was observed for the hexR mutant grown on glucose- or sucrose-supplemented medium. Arabinose allowed for the most efficient growth independent of the genotypes studied. These results indicated a potential HexR-mediated regulatory link of intra-cellular hexose metabolism with synthesis of Lsc since sucrose is the source of glucose via the enzymatic activity of the later enzyme.
Transcriptional analyses of lsc genes
Abundance of Lsc in PG4180 wild type and hexR mutant
Lack of an effect of HexR on protein secretion and hypersensitive response
This study revealed that expression of genes encoding for an extra-cellular protein appear to be co-regulated with genes required for central hexose metabolism in a Gram-negative bacterium. Complementing previous studies on the global hexose metabolism repressor, HexR, in P. putida [21-24], our results suggested that involvement of HexR in regulation of lsc expression might be a selective adaptation of the plant pathogen, P. syringae, to its well-studied infection cycle [42,43]. Once Lsc is secreted, cellular resources needed for its synthesis such as amino acyl residues are not available for the cell anymore. Consequently, P. syringae might repress Lsc synthesis in coordination with hexose utilization when sufficient levels of intra-cellular glucose are available to balance the cell’s energy demands.
In close proximity and upstream of the translation start site (TSS) of P. syringae lsc genes, palindromic sequences were identified, which resemble HexR binding sites previously predicted for P. putida . Repressors such as HexR were suggested to bind to inverted repeats that partially or fully overlap RNA-polymerase binding sites .
Sucrose is the most abundant plant storage sugar . Bacterial in planta and in vitro growth analyses indicated that the substrate of Lsc, sucrose, and in consequence its enzymatic product, glucose, seem to be major nutrient sources for P. syringae during in planta growth. This is in line with previous findings reporting high molecular abundances of sucrose in bean plant’s apoplastic fluids . Consequently, expression and secretion of Lsc might be a fitness factor for the in planta life of P. syringae. Along the course of the experiment, the total populations of PG4180 wild type and its hexR mutant varied but were not significantly different from each other. This variation reflects a feature that is usually observed during assessment of bacterial populations . LL Kinkel, M Wilson and SE Lindow  showed that two leaves of the same plant species might vary by over 10-fold in their total epiphytic bacteria. Moreover, a study by SS Hirano and CD Upper  also demonstrated that regardless of the geographic area, plant species, or time scale tested, variations in population sizes of P. syringae are common. Many factors such as availability of nutrients, bacterial immigration , and ability of bacteria to tolerate environmental stresses on leaf surfaces  contribute to the observed variations.
A tendency is seen regarding the percentage of internalized bacteria in plants, although it is not significantly different. PG4180 wild type shows higher percentage of internalized bacteria as opposed to those inoculated with the hexR mutant. On days 3, 5, and 7 post inoculation, the wild type had 20, 23 and 12% more internalized bacteria, respectively, than the hexR mutant. The high local abundance of sugars, mainly sucrose and glucose, in the apoplast of leave tissue  could potentially be responsible for the weaker multiplication of the hexR mutant inside the plant tissue. Consequently, it is hypothesized that HexR might play an important role in survival of PG4180 inside soybean leaves. In turn, a higher percentage of external hexR mutant cells were surviving on the leaf surface although not significantly different (data not shown). Although our study did not provide direct evidence for this, an increase in levan formation by the hexR mutation might have protected the mutant from damage by UV light or desiccation leading to higher survival rates on the leaf surface.
The use of arabinose as sole carbon source had no effect on the growth phenotype of the hexR mutant. This was not surprising since the assimilatory pathways of glucose and arabinose are independent. L-arabinose is converted to α–keto-glutarate in Pseudomonas which can directly be utilized in the Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) independent of HexR regulation [53,54].
Currently, there is no plausible explanation for the lack of significant growth of the hexR mutant when supplemented with glucose or sucrose as sole carbon source. However, one might speculate on an up-regulation of genes normally repressed by HexR such as glk, zwf-1, pgl, edd, eda, and gap-1 as previously shown in P. putida . The effect could be potentiated in P. syringae by an increased expression of lsc, whose gene product in turn provides even more glucose. Derepressed glucose consumption in the hexR mutant might cause a surplus production of NADPH, NADH, and ATP (Figure 8). In turn, this may lead to an imbalance of cellular redox homeostasis thus alleviating cellular ‘reductive stress’ or even inducing ‘energy spilling’, respectively.
In E. coli, the redox potential influences the synthesis of fermentation products, which are formed to recycle and reoxidize NADH . When E. coli cells are aerobically challenged with high glucose concentrations, they undergo a so-called ‘acetate switch’, which decelerates growth . A metabolic flux analysis of E. coli predicted that excess of carbon and energy might cause over-flow metabolism, which results in less efficient carbon utilization and decreased growth . In Streptococcus bovis, excess ATP generation can cause ‘energy spilling’ by futile cycling of protons through the membrane, which leads to lesser biomass production [58,59]. Whether reductive stress or ‘energy spilling’ take place in a glucose-exposed hexR mutant of P. syringae remains to be analyzed in future studies.
Expression of lsc genes was higher in the hexR mutant as compared to the wild type during late logarithmic growth. This result is in accordance with previous results of micro-array analyses of glucose metabolic genes in P. putida KT2440 where genes glk and zwf-1 showed a ~ two-fold increased expression while genes pgl, edd, eda, and gap-1 exhibited a four- to six-fold increased expression in a respective hexR mutant . Why lsc genes were only moderately up-regulated in the hexR mutant of P. syringae might be explained by the peripheral role of these genes in glucose metabolism.
The HR test is a classical assay to qualitatively show pathogenicity of a plant-associated microbe. The extracellular protein profiles and HR assay conducted with the wild type and the hexR mutant, respectively, suggested that HexR does not influence P. syringae’s ability to cause a HR on non-host plants. Furthermore, our results suggested that the secretion of hrp-associated proteins was not affected when hexR was mutated. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the reduced ability of the hexR mutant to survive inside of the plant is not due to altered hrp gene expression but is rather due to a distorted sugar metabolism.
Data of this study prompt the question whether HexR-controlled genes such as edd, eda, glk, pgl, zwf-1, or gap-1  are indeed co-regulated with lsc genes in P. syringae. The current study revealed exciting options for an in-depth analysis of intra-cellular and extra-cellular hexose metabolism in the plant pathogen P. syringae and may allow us to better understand the potentially complex interplay of factors and parameters contributing to epiphytic or pathogenic behavior of this organism, respectively.
This work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (UL 169/5-1) and doctoral stipends from the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst for AM and KA. The authors thank Helge Weingart for valuable scientific discussions.
- Srivastava A, Zhurina D, Ullrich MS. Levansucrase and levan formation in pseudomonas syringae and related organisms. Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press 2009;213-222Google Scholar
- Li H, Ullrich MS. Characterization and mutational analysis of three allelic lsc genes encoding levansucrase in Pseudomonas syringae. J Bacteriol. 2001;183(11):3282–92.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khandekar S, Srivastava A, Pletzer D, Stahl A, Ullrich MS. The conserved upstream region of lscB/C determines expression of different levansucrase genes in plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. BMC Microbiol. 2014;14:1471–2180. (Electronic)):79.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Schenk A, Srivastava A, Zhurina D, Ullrich MS. Thermo-responsive expression and differential secretion of the extracellular enzyme levansucrase in the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;265(2):178–85.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schenk A, Weingart H, Ullrich MS. Extraction of high-quality bacterial RNA from infected leaf tissue for bacterial in planta gene expression analysis by multiplexed fluorescent Northern hybridization. Mol Plant Pathol. 2008;9(2):227–35.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lindow SE, Brandl MT. Microbiology of the phyllosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69(4):1875–83.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Budde IP, Ullrich MS. Interactions of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea with host and nonhost plants in relation to temperature and phytotoxin synthesis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2000;13(9):951–61.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Melotto M, Underwood W, He SY. Role of stomata in plant innate immunity and foliar bacterial diseases. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2008;46:101–22.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dunleavy JM. Bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases affecting soybean leaves. In Soybean Diseases of the North Central Region (Wyllie TD & Scott DH, eds). American Phytopathological Society 1988;40–46Google Scholar
- Smirnova A, Li H, Weingart H, Aufhammer S, Burse A, Finis K, et al. Thermoregulated expression of virulence factors in plant-associated bacteria. Arch Microbiol. 2001;176(6):393–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mansfield JW. From bacterial avirulence genes to effector functions via the hrp delivery system: an overview of 25 years of progress in our understanding of plant innate immunity. Mol Plant Pathol. 2009;10(6):721–34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Atkinson MM, Baker CJ. Alteration of plasmalemma sucrose transport in Phaseolus vulgaris by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and its association with K+/H+ exchange. Phytopathology. 1987;77:1573–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roitsch T, Gonzalez MC. Function and regulation of plant invertases: sweet sensations. Trends Plant Sci. 2004;9(12):606–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biemelt S, Sonnewald U. Plant-microbe interactions to probe regulation of plant carbon metabolism. J Plant Physiol. 2006;163(3):307–18.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Papp B, Teusink B, Notebaart RA. A critical view of metabolic network adaptations. HFSP J. 2009;3(1):24–35.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lessie TG, Phibbs PV. Alternative Pathways of Carbohydrate Utilization in Pseudomonads. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1984;38(1):359–88.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Entner N, Doudoroff M. Glucose and gluconic acid oxidation of Pseudomonas saccharophila. J Biol Chem. 1952;196(2):853–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Portais JC, Delort AM. Carbohydrate cycling in micro-organisms: what can (13)C-NMR tell us? FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002;26(4):375–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Conway T. The Entner-Doudoroff pathway: history, physiology and molecular biology. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1992;9(1):1–27.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xie CH, Yokota A. Reclassification of Alcaligenes latus strains IAM 12599 T and IAM 12664 and Pseudomonas saccharophila as Azohydromonas lata gen. nov., comb. nov., Azohydromonas australica sp. nov. and Pelomonas saccharophila gen. nov., comb. nov., respectively. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:1466–5026. Print).Google Scholar
- Kim J, Jeon CO, Park W. Dual regulation of zwf-1 by both 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate and oxidative stress in Pseudomonas putida. Microbiology. 2008;154(Pt 12):3905–16.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Daddaoua A, Krell T, Ramos JL. Regulation of glucose metabolism in Pseudomonas: the phosphorylative branch and entner-doudoroff enzymes are regulated by a repressor containing a sugar isomerase domain. J Biol Chem. 2009;284(32):21360–8.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- del Castillo T, Duque E, Ramos JL. A set of activators and repressors control peripheral glucose pathways in Pseudomonas putida to yield a common central intermediate. J Bacteriol. 2008;190(7):2331–9.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petruschka L, Adolf K, Burchhardt G, Dernedde J, Jurgensen J, Herrmann H. Analysis of the zwf-pgl-eda-operon in Pseudomonas putida strains H and KT2440. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;215(1):89–95.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leyn SA, Li X, Zheng Q, Novichkov PS, Reed S, Romine MF, et al. Control of proteobacterial central carbon metabolism by the HexR transcriptional regulator: a case study in Shewanella oneidensis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(41):35782–94.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual (2nd ed). New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1989.Google Scholar
- Keane P, Kerr A, New P. Crown Gall of Stone Fruit II. Identification and Nomenclature of Agrobacterium Isolates. Aust J Biol Sci. 1970;23(3):585–96.Google Scholar
- Palmer DA, Bender CL. Effects of Environmental and Nutritional Factors on Production of the Polyketide Phytotoxin Coronatine by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Glycinea. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993;59(5):1619–26.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bender CL, Liyanage H, Palmer D, Ullrich M, Young S, Mitchell R. Characterization of the genes controlling the biosynthesis of the polyketide phytotoxin coronatine including conjugation between coronafacic and coronamic acid. Gene. 1993;133(1):31–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Figurski DH, Helinski DR. Replication of an origin-containing derivative of plasmid RK2 dependent on a plasmid function provided in trans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76(4):1648–52.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kovach ME, Phillips RW, Elzer PH, Roop 2nd RM, Peterson KM. pBBR1MCS: a broad-host-range cloning vector. Biotechniques. 1994;16(5):800–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kovach ME, Elzer PH, Hill DS, Robertson GT, Farris MA, Roop 2nd RM, et al. Four new derivatives of the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1MCS, carrying different antibiotic-resistance cassettes. Gene. 1995;166(1):175–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoang TT, Karkhoff-Schweizer RR, Kutchma AJ, Schweizer HP. A broad-host-range Flp-FRT recombination system for site-specific excision of chromosomally-located DNA sequences: application for isolation of unmarked Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants. Gene. 1998;212(1):77–86.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi KH, Mima T, Casart Y, Rholl D, Kumar A, Beacham IR, et al. Genetic tools for select-agent-compliant manipulation of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74(4):1064–75.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- O’Brien RD, Lindow SE. Effect of Plant Species and Environmental Conditions on Ice Nucleation Activity of Pseudomonas syringae on Leaves. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988;54(9):2281–6.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- King EO, Ward MK, Raney DE. Two simple media for the demonstration of pyocyanin and fluorescin. J Lab Clin Med. 1954;44(2):301–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- He SY, Huang H-C, Collmer A. Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae harpinPss: A protein that is secreted via the hrp pathway and elicits the hypersensitive response in plants. Cell. 1993;73(7):1255–66.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huynh T, Dahlbeck D, Staskawicz B. Bacterial blight of soybean: regulation of a pathogen gene determining host cultivar specificity. Science. 1989;245(4924):1374–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russell DW. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2001.Google Scholar
- Hettwer U, Jaeckel FR, Boch J, Meyer M, Rudolph K, Ullrich MS. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in Escherichia coli of levansucrase genes from the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64(9):3180–7.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Finn RD, Mistry J, Tate J, Coggill P, Heger A, Pollington JE, et al. The Pfam protein families database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38(Database issue):D211–222.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dulla G, Marco M, Quinones B, Lindow S. A closer look at Pseudomonas syringae as a leaf colonist—the pathogen P. syringae thrives on healthy plants by employing quorum sensing, virulence factors, and other traits. ASM News. 2005;71:469–75.Google Scholar
- Morris CE, Sands DC, Vinatzer BA, Glaux C, Guilbaud C, Buffiere A, et al. The life history of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is linked to the water cycle. ISME J. 2008;2(3):321–34.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rojo F. Repression of transcription initiation in bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1999;181(10):2987–91.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mercier J, Lindow SE. Role of leaf surface sugars in colonization of plants by bacterial epiphytes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66(1):369–74.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kinkel LL, Wilson M, Lindow SE. Effect of sampling scale on the assessment of epiphytic bacterial populations. Microb Ecol. 1995;29(3):283–97.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hirano SS, Upper CD. Population Biology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas Syringae. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 1990;28(1):155–77.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beattie GA, Lindow SE. The secret life of foliar bacterial pathogens on leaves. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 1995;33:145–72.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Benkeblia N, Shinano T, Osaki M. Metabolite profiling and assessment of metabolome compartmentation of soybean leaves using non-aqueous fractionation and GC-MS analysis. Metabolomics. 2007;3(3):297–305.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bergeron LJ, Burne RA. Roles of fructosyltransferase and levanase-sucrase of Actinomyces naeslundii in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Infect Immun. 2001;69(9):5395–402.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bekers M, Upite D, Kaminska E, Grube M, Laukevics J, Vina I, et al. Fructan Biosynthesis by Intra- and Extracellular Zymomonas mobilis Levansucrase after Simultaneous Production of Ethanol and Levan. Acta Biotechnol. 2003;23(1):85–93.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee KJ, Lefebvre M, Tribe DE, Rogers PL. High productivity ethanol fermentations with Zymomonas mobilis using continuous cell recycle. Biotechnol Lett. 1980;2(11):487–92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weimberg R, Doudoroff M. The oxidation of L-arabinose by Pseudomonas saccharophila. J Biol Chem. 1955;217(2):607–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palleroni NJ, Contopoulou R, Doudoroff M. Metabolism of carbohydrates by Pseudomonas saccharophila. II. Nature of the kinase reaction involving fructose. J Bacteriol. 1956;71(2):202–7.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berrios-Rivera SJ, Bennett GN, San KY. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: increase of NADH availability by overexpressing an NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase. Metab Eng. 2002;4(3):217–29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolfe AJ. The acetate switch. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69(1):12–50.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schuetz R, Kuepfer L, Sauer U. Systematic evaluation of objective functions for predicting intracellular fluxes in Escherichia coli. Mol Syst Biol. 2007;3:119.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bond DR, Russell JB. Protonmotive force regulates the membrane conductance of Streptococcus bovis in a non-ohmic fashion. Microbiology. 2000;146(3):687–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Russell JB. The energy spilling reactions of bacteria and other organisms. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;13(1–3):1–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, et al. Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics. 2007;23(21):2947–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.