- Research article
- Open Access
Investigating the role of small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs) in the resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores to heat
© Raju et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 19 April 2006
Accepted: 08 June 2006
Published: 08 June 2006
Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning is caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A isolates that typically possess high spore heat-resistance. The molecular basis for C. perfringens spore heat-resistance remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs) in heat-resistance of spores produced by C. perfringens food poisoning isolates.
Our current study demonstrated the presence of all three SASP-encoding genes (ssp1, 2 and 3) in five surveyed C. perfringens clinical food poisoning isolates. β-Glucuronidase assay showed that these ssp genes are expressed specifically during sporulation. Consistent with these expression results, our study also demonstrated the production of SASPs by C. perfringens food poisoning isolates. When the heat sensitivities of spores produced by a ssp3 knock-out mutant of a C. perfringens food poisoning isolate was compared with that of spores of the wild-type strain, spores of the ssp3 mutant were found to exhibit a lower decimal reduction value (D value) at 100°C than exhibited by the spores of wild-type strain. This effect was restored by complementing the ssp3 mutant with a recombinant plasmid carrying wild-type ssp3, suggesting that the observed differences in D values between spores of wild-type versus ssp3 mutant was due to the specific inactivation of ssp3. Furthermore, our DNA protection assay demonstrated that C. perfringens SASPs can protect DNA from DNase I digestion.
The results from our current study provide evidences that SASPs produced by C. perfringens food poisoning isolates play a role in protecting their spores from heat-damage, which is highly significant and relevant from a food safety perspective. Further detailed studies on mechanism of action of SASPs from C. perfringens should help in understanding the mechanism of protection of C. perfringens spores from heat-damage.
Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium that has long been recognized as a significant cause of histotoxic and gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in both humans and animals [1, 2]. C. perfringens isolates can be classified into one of five types (A through E) based upon their ability to produce alpha-, beta-, epsilon- and iota-toxin . Although enterotoxin (CPE)-producing C. perfringens type A isolates represent <5% of global C. perfringens population, these bacteria are very important human GI pathogens, causing C. perfringens type A food poisoning and non-food-borne GI diseases . Substantial experimental and epidemiological evidence [1, 3] now indicates that CPE plays a major role in the development of GI symptoms in cases of C. perfringens-associated food poisoning and non-food-borne GI diseases. In addition to producing CPE, C. perfringens food poisoning isolates have the ability to form heat-resistant spores, which can survive boiling for an hour or longer [1, 4, 5]. The possession of high spore heat-resistance facilitates the survival of C. perfringens spores in primary food vehicles (such as meat and poultry products) where, in the presence of appropriate nutrients, dormant spores are reverted to vegetative cells and multiply, and then cause food-borne illness after consumption of these contaminated foods .
The molecular basis for C. perfringens spore heat-resistance remains unknown. However, since small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs) from Bacillus subtilis can protect their spores from damage by heat and other environmental factors [6–8], it is very likely that C. perfringens SASPs play a similar role. Spores of Bacillus and Clostridium species contain a number of SASPs of molecular weight 5–7 kDa, which comprise 10–20% of the total spore protein . These proteins are classified into two groups based on their primary sequence, an α/β-type and a ϒ-type . The B. subtilis α/β-type SASPs are encoded by multiple genes and comprise a large protein family whose amino acid sequences are very highly conserved within and between species . The B. subtilis α/β-type SASPs are non-specific DNA binding proteins which saturate the spore chromosome and protect spore DNA from damage caused by heat, UV radiation, and peroxidase [9–12]. Although an enormous number of studies on the role of SASPs in B. subtilis spore resistance have been carried out, nothing is known about the role of C. perfringens SASPs. However, the advance towards understanding the role of SASPs in C. perfringens spore resistance is emerging from some old studies [13–15] which revealed the existence of multiple α/β-type, but not ϒ-type, SASPs in Clostridium species. Three genes (ssp1, 2 and 3) coding for α/β-type SASPs have been cloned and nucleotide sequenced from C. perfringens old strains [16, 17]. Interestingly, only these three ssp genes, compared to at-least 7 ssp genes in B. subtilis , were identified in the genome of C. perfringens strain 13 . However, the presence and expression of these ssp genes in recent clinical C. perfringens food poisoning isolates and their role in spore heat-resistance remains unknown.
In the current study, we investigated the genetics and expression of ssp genes in C. perfringens clinical food poisoning isolates. Our study also prepared an isogenic ssp3 knock-out mutant of a C. perfringens type A food poisoning isolate. The heat sensitivities of spores produced by ssp3 knock-out mutant was compared with that of spores of the wild type strain. The results from these experiments now provide evidence that C perfringens SASPs play a role in spore heat-resistance.
PCR screening and comparison of ssp ORFs in C. perfringens food poisoning isolates
The nucleotide sequencing analyzes revealed (data not shown) that no mutations or termination codons were found in the ssp1, 2 or 3 ORF sequences of our five surveyed isolates that encode proteins of 60-, 59- or 60-aa, respectively. The ssp1, 2 or 3 ORF sequences and also the upstream promoter sequences are highly conserved in all our surveyed food poisoning isolates and matches exactly with previously published sequences [16, 18].
Evaluation of expression of ssp genes in C. perfringens food poisoning isolates
To examine the expression of ssp genes, the putative promoter regions of ssp1, 2, or 3 from C. perfringens food poisoning isolate SM101 was fused to E. coli gusA. These ssp-gusA fusion constructs were introduced into wild-type SM101 and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity was measured during vegetative and sporulation growth. A promoter-less gusA construct was used as a negative control to ensure the specificity and reliability of the assay (Data not shown).
To analyze the sporulation-dependent expression of ssp genes further, we examined the expression of ssp1-, 2- or 3-gusA fusion in a spo0A mutant of C. perfringens. The rationale for using spo0A mutant is that, if ssp expression is truly dependent on sporulation, ssp-gusA fusions would not be expressed in sporulation-deficient spo0A mutant of C. perfringens . The ssp-gusA fusion constructs pSG12 (ssp1-gusA), pSG22 (ssp2-gusA) and pSG32 (ssp3-gusA) were introduced into C. perfringens spo0A mutant strain IH101 and GUS activity was measured during sporulation growth. As shown in Fig 2, no detectable GUS activity was obtained with sporulating cultures of IH101 carrying ssp1-, 2, and 3-gusA fusions, confirming that the expression of ssp genes in C. perfringens are dependent on spo0A expression and sporulation.
SASP production by C. perfringens food poisoning isolates
Creation of ssp knock-out mutants
To evaluate the role of SASPs in spore heat-resistance, we attempted to introduce knock-out mutations into each ssp gene. The mutator plasmid pDR63, pDR27 or pMRS62, carrying mutated allele Δssp1::catP, Δssp2::catP and Δssp3::catP, respectively, was introduced into C. perfringens strain SM101 by electroporation, and EmrCmr transformants were selected. As a positive control of transformation, the C. perfringens-E. coli shuttle plasmid pJIR751 encoding Emr was included. The EmrCmr transformants were obtained at ~1000-fold less frequencies than that of pJIR751-derived Emr transformants, which was expected because mutator plasmids pDR63, pDR27 and pMRS62 have no origin of replication for C. perfringens. The single cross-over event of homologous recombination was confirmed by PCR using each ssp- specific primers (data not shown). One transformant for each mutator plasmid was grown in the absence of both Em and Cm, and a double crossover event between each wild-type ssp and the respective mutated Δssp::catP allele was screened by selecting colonies for Cmr and Ems phenotypes. After screening of ~2,500 colonies from SM101(pMRS62) culture, we obtained one putative clone showing a Cmr and Ems phenotype. This putative ssp3 mutant was designated as DR101. However, no Cmr and Ems clone was obtained after screening of >3,000 colonies from each of SM101(pDR27) and SM101(pDR63) culture. Our three repeated attempts using SM101(pDR63) and SM101(pDR27) transformants from three independent electroporations were failed to isolate spp1 and ssp2 mutant, respectively.
Confirmation of DR101 as ssp3 knock-out mutant
Southern blot analyses showed that a single Hpa I-digested DNA fragment from wild-type strain SM101 hybridized with ssp3-specific probe (Fig. 4B). However, two hybridizing bands were observed with DNA from mutant strain, DR101 (Fig. 4B). This profile is consistent with results expected since the ~1.3-kb catP-containing fragment has an internal Hpa I site. The catP-specific probe hybridized with an ~15-kb Hpa I fragment of DR101 DNA, but as expected, no hybridizing band was observed with DNA from wild type SM101 (Fig. 4B). These results further confirmed that wild-type ssp3 gene in DR101 having been replaced with Δssp3::catP allele.
Sporulation and CPE production by ssp3 mutant
We first compared the sporulation capability of the ssp3 mutant against that of its wild-type. Both the mutant strain DR101 and wild-type strain SM101 exhibited significant sporulation, i.e., refractile endospores were visualized by phase-contrast microscopy after 8 h growth in DS medium (data not shown). When we compared the CPE producing capabilities of the wild-type strain SM101 and ssp3 knock-out mutant DR101, an ~35-kDa CPE-specific immunoreactive band was detected in Western blots of lysates prepared from sporulating cultures of both SM101 and DR101 (data not shown). Quantitative analyses demonstrated similar level of CPE production in both SM101 and DR101 (data not shown).
Comparison of the heat sensitivities of spores produced by C. perfringens food poisoning isolate carrying wild-type versus knock-out ssp3
In order to determine whether the observed differences in D values between spores of SM101 and spores of DR101 was due to the specific inactivation of ssp3, D value was determined at 100°C for heat-shocked sporulating cultures of complemented strain DR101(pDR18). As calculated from Fig. 5, spores produced by DR101(pDR18) had a wild-type level D value i.e., ~90 min at 100°C. This finding was confirmed by three independent experiments. Collectively, our results indicated that the reduced heat-resistance of spores produced by the ssp3 knock-out mutant was caused by the specific inactivation of ssp3.
Protection of plasmid DNA against DNase I
C. perfringens type A food poisoning, which currently ranks as the third most commonly reported food-borne disease in the United States , is caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A isolates that typically possess high spore heat-resistance [1, 4]. The possession of high spore heat-resistance favors the survival of C. perfringens food poisoning isolates during incomplete cooking or inadequate holding of foods, which are the two major factors contributing to C. perfringens type A food-borne illness . However, the molecular basis for C. perfringens spore heat-resistance remains unknown. In the current study, we hypothesized that SASPs produced by C. perfringens food poisoning isolates can play a role in the resistance of their spores to heat.
Our current study demonstrated the presence of all three ssp genes in a large number of clinical C. perfringens food poisoning isolates. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the ssp ORFs in our surveyed isolates are intact, i.e., no mutations or premature termination codons were detected in the ORFs. Although previous studies [16, 17] reported the presence of ssp1, 2 and 3 in C. perfringens laboratory strains, to our knowledge, our study is the first to compare all three ssp ORFs between a large number of clinical cpe-positive C. perfringens food poisoning isolates. The deduced amino acid sequence of SASPs from our surveyed C. perfringens food poisoning isolates are identical to that of the C. perfringens SASPs published earlier [16, 17] and homologous to α/β-type SASPs of B. subtilis  indicating that the ssp ORFs present in food poisoning isolates are indeed ssp genes.
This study report evidences that the ssp genes present in C. perfringens food poisoning isolates are functional. Our GUS assay showed that ssp1, 2 and 3 from a food poisoning isolate SM101 were expressed during sporulation, but not during vegetative growth, and expression begins ~3–4 h after induction of sporulation. These results suggest that the mechanism of regulation of C. perfringens SASPs may be similar as that of B. subtilis. In B. subtilis, SASPs synthesis begins 3–4 h into sporulation, when all three major SASPs are synthesized in parallel . The differential expression of ssp genes (Fig. 2) can not be explained by the differences in ribosome binding sites (rbs) because the putative rbs is highly conserved among the three ssp genes (data not shown). Further support for the sporulation-dependent expression of C. perfringens ssp genes came from our observations that no GUS activity was detected in spo0A mutant IH101 carrying ssp1-, 2- or 3-gusA fusion. Consistent with these expression results, our study also provides evidence that C. perfringens food poisoning isolates can, in fact, produce SASPs. The multiple protein bands obtained in our study from acid extracts of spores produced by food poisoning isolates (Fig. 3) were also observed previously  in acid extracts of spores produced by C. perfringens NCTC9268. The identity of these acid-soluble spore proteins as SASPs was confirmed by Western blot analyses using B. subtilis SspC antibody (Fig. 3). The single immunoreactive band observed in Western blot can be explained by the fact that C. perfringens ssp1, 2 and 3 are highly homologous (>90%) to each other and encode similar sized proteins (59–60 aa). Collectively, the presence and expression of ssp genes in C. perfringens food poisoning isolates, which possess high spore heat-resistance as indicated in a previous study , significantly strengthen the hypothesis that SASPs are associated with heat-resistance of spores produced by these isolates.
The present study's most significant finding is the presentation of the first genetic evidence that C. perfringens SASPs play a role in heat-resistance of spores produced by C. perfringens. The inactivation of ssp3 significantly affected the heat-resistance of spores produced by a food poisoning isolate SM101. Our findings that i) spores of ssp3 knock-out mutant exhibited lower heat-resistance than that of the spores of wild type and ii) reversion of this effect by complementing the mutant with a recombinant plasmid carrying wild type ssp3, provided direct genetic evidence supporting the strong linkage between the production of SASPs and the resistance of spores to heat. The slight reduction of D value in spores of ssp3 mutant compared to the D value of spores of wild-type can be explained by the presence of the functional ssp1 and ssp2 genes in ssp3 mutant strain DR101. Our DNA protection assay also supports the role of C. perfringens SASPs in spore heat-resistance by demonstrating that C. perfringens SASPs, like B. subtilis SASPs , can protect plasmid DNA from DNase I digestion. Further studies on characterization of SASP-DNA binding and the effect of this binding on plasmid topology should help in understanding the mechanism of interaction between DNA and SASPs from C. perfringens.
To our knowledge, this report represents the first successful study involving the construction of a C. perfringens ssp knock-out mutant. The greatest challenge faced in our ssp knock-out study was the lack of an easy screening method for the second cross-over event. Although in our first attempt, using the double-antibiotic selection strategy , we were able to isolate ssp3 knock-out mutant, our three similar independent attempts were failed to isolate ssp1 and ssp2 mutant. The reasons for these failures can not be explained by the lack of sufficient amount of homologous DNA in mutator plasmids  because, both pDR62 and pDR27 carry at-least 1.4-kb homologous DNA located on either side of the insertionally inactivated ssp gene that should be sufficient to allow double-reciprocal crossover event . It is also unlikely that incorporation of catP in ssp1 or ssp2 can cause polar effect on the downstream gene whose expression is essential for the survival of C. perfringens cells because our nucleotide sequencing analyses (data not shown) demonstrated that neither ssp1 nor ssp2 forms an operon with any downstream gene in the genome of SM101. Therefore, further research is needed to identify the relevant obstacles for isolating ssp1 and ssp2 mutants.
The current study demonstrated that i) all three ssp genes are present and expressed in a large number of clinical C. perfringens food poisoning isolates, ii) ssp3 knock-out mutant of C. perfringens food poisoning isolate possess lower spore-heat resistance compared to that of its parent strain and this effect could be restored by complementing the mutant with wild-type ssp3 gene, and iii) SASPs from C. perfringens food poisoning isolate can protect DNA from DNase I digestion. Collectively, these results support our initial hypothesis that SASPs produced by C. perfringens food poisoning isolates can play a role in resistance of their spores to heat. These findings are highly significant and relevant from a food safety perspective because the possession of high spore heat-resistance favors the survival of C. perfringens food poisoning isolates in primary food vehicles (such as, meat and poultry products) contributing to C. perfringens food-borne illnesses . Further detailed studies on mechanism of action of SASPs from C. perfringens should help in understanding the mechanism of protection of C. perfringens spores from damage caused by heat and other environmental stresses.
Bacterial strains and growth conditions
Bacterial strains and Plasmids used in this study
Sources or Reference
Electroporatable derivative of food poisoning type A isolate, NCTC8798, carries a chromosomal cpe
Food poisoning type A isolate carrying a chromosomal cpe
Food poisoning type A isolate carrying a chromosomal cpe
Food poisoning type A isolate carrying a chromosomal cpe
Food poisoning type A isolate carrying a chromosomal cpe
Type A, laboratory strain
spo0A mutant derivative of SM101
ssp3 mutant derivative of SM101
C. perfringens – E. coli shuttle vector ; Emr
C. perfringens – E. coli shuttle vector ; Cmr, Emr
Suicidal plasmid, no origin of replication for Clostridia; Emr
cpe-gusA in pJIR750; Cmr
sigK-gusA fusion in pJIR750; Cmr
sigK-gusA fusion in pJIR751; Emr
pJIR751 carrying promoter-less gusA; Emr
ssp3 and 1.9-kb each upstream and downstream region cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO®.
ssp1 promoter in pCR®-XL-TOPO®
ssp1-gusA in pMRS127; Emr
ssp2 and 1.4-kb each upstream and downstream region cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO®.
Nru I site incorporated into ssp2 in pDR13
ssp3 with its promoter in pCR®-XL-TOPO®
ssp3 with its promoter in pJIR751; Emr
ssp2 promoter in pCR®-XL-TOPO®
ssp2-gusA in pMRS127; Emr
ssp2::catP in pCR®-XL-TOPO®
ssp2::catP in pMRS104; EmrCmr
ssp3 promoter in pCR®-XL-TOPO®
ssp1 and 1.5-kb each upstream and downstream region cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO®.
ssp3-gusA in pMRS127; Emr
Hpa I site incorporated into ssp3 in pBH2
ssp3::catP in pMRS60; CmrKmr
ssp3::catP in pMRS104; EmrCmr
Nru I site incorporated into ssp1 in pDR31
ssp1::catP in pDR61; CmrKmr
ssp1::catP in pMRS104; EmrCmr
ssp-specific PCR analysis
Primers used in this study
5' GCTTACAAATTACCAAAGCC 3'
-36 to -17
5' CAGTATTAGCGAAAGGTTTG 3'
83 to 202
5' CTCCTATAATTCCCTCTCAT 3'
-105 to -86
5' GTAGACTTTAATAGGTTCAGG 3'
180 to 200
5' CTGCACATCATAATATTGAAAGG 3'
-80 to -58
5' GAGGGTCCTATTGTAGGAGGATT 3'
-2010 to -1888
5' ATAGCAGGAGGAGCTATTCCAC 3'
2099 to 2120
5' CGGAGACCTTAGCTCAAGTTAACGCGGAAGCGTTGGTGGAG 3'
95 to 135
5' CTCCACCAACGCTTCCGCGTTAACTTGAGCTAAGGTCTCCG 3'
95 to 135
5' GCTATGGATCTTATGGAAGG 3'
423 to 442
5' CGGCTTCTAGCACATCTTCT 3'
-1662 to -1593
5' TATGTGGAGCAGGAATTGCC 3'
1449 to 1469
73 to 113
5' CCATTTCTCCACCAACGCTTCGCGACATTGTAATCTGAGAATGGTAC 3'
73 to 113
-1564 to -1544
5' CCTCACCATTATCCTCTACAAG 3'
1782 to 1802
5' GCTAGAGAATTAGGGGTACCTCGCGACCTAAGTTCAAGACAA 3'
60 to 116
5' TTGTCTTGAACTTAGGTCGCGAGGTACCCCTAATTCTCTAGC 3'
60 to 116
5' GCGTCGAC CTGTTTGAGCTTTTTTC 3'
-200 to -213
5' GCTGCAG CCTGGAACTAAATGTTGT 3'
3 to 21
5' GCGTCGAC TAGGTGCAGAAGC 3'
-219 to -203
5' GCTGCAG CTGGAACTAATGATTTTGAC 3'
3 to 21
5' GCGTCGAC GGAACTAAAGCTAAATTTGG 3'
-238 to -223
5' GCTGCAG GCTTCTGGTACTAAATGTTGTG 3'
3 to 25
Cloning and sequencing of the ssp-containing fragments from various cpe-positive isolates
The DNA fragment containing ssp ORFs and an ~200 bp upstream sequence from each of five C. perfringens chromosomal cpe isolates was amplified by PCR as described above. These PCR products were then cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO® vector using the TOPO® XL cloning kit (Invitrogen). Both strands of the ssp- containing DNA insert present in recombinant pCR®-XL-TOPO® plasmid was then sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primers.
Construction of gusA-fusion plasmids and β-glucuronidase assay
The gusA reporter vector pSM242 (obtained from Dr. Melville as a gift), is a derivative of an E. coli-C. perfringens shuttle vector pJIR750 , encoding chloramphenicol resistance (Cmr), contains the following features: i) four tandem terminators to minimize vector-based transcription, ii) multicloning sites located upstream of a promoterless cpe-gusA fusion, iii) the ribosome binding site and the first 13 amino acids of the cpe gene coding region to provide efficient translation  and iv) the E. coli gusA  as a transcriptional reporter element. Since our C. perfringens spo0A mutant already contained Cmr marker, for our study we first constructed an erythromycin resistant (Emr) derivative of pSM242. An ~2.5-kb EcoR I-Hin dIII fragment of pSM242 was cloned into Eco RI/Hin dIII sites of an E. coli-C. perfringens shuttle vector pJIR751 , which encodes Emr, to create pMRS127.
The PCR amplified product (~200-bp) carrying the upstream region of each ssp was first cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO® vector using TOPO®-XL cloning kit (Invitrogen). Briefly, the DNA fragment carrying the promoter region of each of ssp1, 2 or 3 from SM101 (a food poisoning isolate carrying cpe on the chromosome) was amplified by PCR using primers CPP63/CPP64, CPP65/CPP66 and CPP57/CPP58, respectively (Table 2). The Sal I site was incorporated in the forward and Pst I site in the reverse primers of each primer pairs. These PCR products were then cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO® vector. The Sal I-Pst I fragments carrying the promoter regions of ssp1, 2 or 3 from pCR®-XL-TOPO® clones were then re-cloned into the Sal I/Pst I sites of pMRS127 to create ssp1-, 2- or 3-gusA fusion constructs, pSG12, pSG22 or pSG32, respectively. As a negative control, pMRS130 carrying promoter-less gusA was constructed by cloning of Xba I-Sac I fragment from pSM104  into the Xba I/Sac I sites of pJIR751. These plasmids were then introduced into C. perfringens wild-type SM101 or spo0A mutant IH101 by electroporation  and Emr transformants were selected. The SM101 and IH101 transformants carrying ssp-gusA fusions or promoter-less gusA were grown in vegetative and sporulation conditions and tested for β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity as previously described [26, 28].
Extraction of SASPs and Western blotting
C. perfringens SASP was extracted using the protocol as previously described . Briefly, sporulating cells of C. perfringens were sonicated and then centrifuged. The spores were washed several times with distilled water and lyophilized. The dried spores were subjected to dry rupture in a dental amalgamator (Wig-L-Bug) using 0.1 g of glass beads as an abrasive. The spore powder was resuspended in 3% acetic acid solution and then subjected to dialysis (Spectr/por®3, MWCO- 3,500, Spectrum laboratories) against 1% acetic acid solution at 4°C for at least 24 h. The sample was lyophilized and used for analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at low pH as previously described . The gel was run at 20 mA with the appropriate electrode polarity since SASPs are positively charged and hence run towards the cathode. The gel was stained with commassie brilliant blue (Bio-Rad) or transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane for Western blotting. The blot was probed with antibodies against B. subtilis SspC [13, 29] and developed for chemiluminescence detection (Pierce) to identify immunoreactive species.
Construction of mutator plasmids for ssp1, 2 and 3
ssp1 mutator plasmid: A 3306-bp DNA fragment containing ssp1 ORF and ~1.5-kb each upstream and downstream region was PCR amplified from genomic DNA of SM101 using primers CPP45 and CPP139 (Table 2) and cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO® (Invitrogen) to create pDR31. The 15-bp (nucleotides 80–94 from ATG) internal deletion as well as a unique Nru I site was incorporated in ssp1 in pDR31 by site-directed mutagenesis using Quick Change Mutagenesis System (Qiagen) using primers CPP104 and CPP105 to create pDR61. Plasmid pDR62 was construced by cloning a 1.3-kb Sma I-Nae I fragment of pJIR418, carrying chloramphenicol resistance marker catP, into Nru I site of pDR61. The ssp1 mutator plasmid, pDR63, was then constructed by re-cloning the BamH I-Xho I fragment containing Δssp1::catP allele, from pDR62 into Bam HI/Sal I sites of suicidal plasmid pMRS104.
ssp2 mutator plasmid: A 3081-bp DNA fragment containing ssp2 ORF and ~1.4-kb each upstream and downstream region was PCR amplified from genomic DNA of SM101 using primers CPP37 and CPP38 (Table 2) and cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO® (Invitrogen) to create pDR13. Plasmid pDR14 was constructed by deleting 15-bp (nucleotides 102–115 from ATG) internal ssp2 fragment as well as incorporating a unique Nru I site in ssp2 present in pDR13 by site-directed mutagenesis using Quick Change Mutagenesis System (Qiagen) using primers CPP47 and CPP48. A 1.3-kb Sma I-Nae I fragment of pJIR418, carrying chloramphenicol resistance marker catP, was cloned into Nru I site of pDR14 to create plasmid pDR26. The ssp2 mutator plasmid pDR27 was then constructed by re-cloning the Bam HI-Xho I fragment containing Δssp2::catP allele, from pDR62 into Bam HI/Sal I sites of suicidal plasmid pMRS104.
ssp3 mutator plasmid: A 4129-bp DNA fragment, carrying the ssp3 ORF and ~1.9-kb each upstream and downstream region, was PCR amplified from genomic DNA of SM101 using primers CPP13 and CPP16 (Table 2). This PCR fragment was cloned into pCR®-XL-TOPO® (Invitrogen) to create the plasmid pBH2. A unique Hpa I restriction site was incorporated into the ssp3 ORF (at position 117 from ATG) present in pBH2 by site-directed mutagenesis using Quick Change Mutagenesis System (Qiagen) using primers CPP21 and CPP22 to create pMRS60. The catP gene was then inserted into the unique Hpa I site located within the ssp3 ORF in pMRS60 by digesting pMRS60 with Hpa I and ligating with a 1.3-kb Sma I-Nae I fragment containing the catP gene from pJIR418, to create pMRS61. The ssp3 mutator plasmid pMRS62 was then constructed by re-cloning the Kpn I-Xho I fragment of pMRS61 into Kpn I/Sal I sites of suicidal plasmid pMRS104.
Isolation of ssp knock-out mutants
The mutator plasmids pDR63, pDR27 and pMRS62 were used to transform, by electroporation , C. perfringens isolate SM101 to Erythromycin (Em) (50 μg/ml) and Chloramphenicol (Cm) (20 μg/ml) resistance. One transformant for each plasmid was grown in TGY broth without any antibiotics and colonies sensitive to Em, but resistant to Cm were selected as previously described [3, 19].
Southern blot analysis
The ssp3-specific DNA probe was prepared using a 4129-bp DNA fragment, carrying ssp3 and ~1.9-kb each upstream and downstream region. This DNA fragment was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of SM101 using primers CPP13 and CPP16 (Table 2). The catP probe was produced using a 517-bp Eco RV-Hpa I fragment, containing internal catP gene sequences, from pJIR418. These ssp3- and catP-containing DNA fragments were labeled using a Random Primed DNA Labeling system (Roche). Total DNA from wild type and ssp3 mutant strains was digested with Hpa I and two identical Southern blots were prepared using this digested DNA and hybridized, separately, with probes specific for the ssp3 or catP. The hybridized probe was detected using a DIG-chemiluminescence detection system utilizing CSPD® [disodium 3-(4-methoxyspiro-4-yl)phenyl phosphate] ready-to-use substrate (Roche) as previously described [3, 4].
CPE Western blot analysis
C. perfringens strains grown in DS or FTG medium were sonicated until >95% of all cells were lysed (lysis was continuously monitored by phase-contrast microscopy). After sonication, each culture lysate was analyzed for the presence of CPE by Western blot analysis using a CPE antibody as previously described [4, 22].
Determination of D values for C. perfringens spores
The heat sensitivities of C. perfringens spores was determined as described previously . Briefly, DS medium cultures prepared and grown for 24 h as described above were heat shocked at 75°C for 20 min which killed the remaining vegetative cells and facilitated spore germination. A 0.1 ml aliquot of each heat-shocked DS medium culture was then serially diluted with sterile FTG medium and each dilution was plated onto Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar plates to establish the number of viable spores per milliliter of DS medium culture at the start of heating (i.e., the zero time point of the experiment).
The remainder of each heat-shocked DS medium culture was then heated at 100°C for time period ranging from 30 min to 90 min. At each time point, a 0.1-ml aliquot was withdrawn and diluted with FTG broth. The dilutions were then plated on BHI agar plates, which were incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. Colonies which developed from germinated spores that survived heating were counted to determine the number of viable colony forming unit (CFU) that were present per milliliter of each heated DS medium culture at each time point. The CFU values were then graphed to determine decimal reduction value (D value) (i.e., the time that a culture had to be kept at a given temperature to obtain a 90% reduction in viable cell numbers) for spores of each isolate tested.
Assay of SASP-nucleic acid binding
The binding of C. perfringens SASPs to nucleic acid was assessed by measuring the ability of SASP to protect nucleic acid from nuclease digestion as previously described . Briefly, SASPs was prepared from C. perfringens SM101 spores as described above and quantified using the Bradford protein assay kit (Bio-Rad). 3 μg of plasmid pJIR751 DNA was incubated in 25 μl of 10 mM Tris-acetate (pH 7.0) -1 mM EDTA with 3 μg of SASPs (1:1 ratio). After 1 h at 37°C, 3 μl of DNase I buffer was added, followed by 2 μl of DNase I (Farmentas). The solution was incubated a further 10 min at 37°C, and then 100 μl of 1.25% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-25 mM EDTA was added, followed by 13 μl of 5 M NaCl and 350 μl of ethanol to precipitate the DNA. The precipitated DNA was dissolved in 10 μl of water and subjected to agarose (1.5%) gel electrophoresis. The presence or absence of DNA was observed under UV illumination after staining with ethidium bromide.
Statistical analyses were performed with student's t test.
This research was supported by a grant from the N. L. Tartar Foundation of Oregon State University and by USDA grant 2002-02281 from the Ensuring Food Safety Research Program (all to M.R.S). We are grateful to Dr. B. A. McClane, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, for providing us with CPE antibody. We thank Nahid Mahfuz for her technical assistance.
- McClane BA: Clostridium perfringens. Food microbiology: fundamentals and frontiers. Edited by: M. P. Doyle LRBTJM. 2001, Washington, D.C., ASM Press, 351-372. 2ndGoogle Scholar
- McDonel JL: Toxins of Clostridium perfringens type A, B, C, D, and E. Pharmacology of bacterial toxins. Edited by: Drews FDH. 1986, Oxford, United Kingdom, Pergamon Press, 477-517.Google Scholar
- Sarker MR, Carman RJ, McClane BA: Inactivation of the gene (cpe) encoding Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin eliminates the ability of two cpe-positive C. perfringens type A human gastrointestinal disease isolates to affect rabbit ileal loops. Mol Microbiol. 1999, 33: 946-958. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01534.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarker MR, Shivers RP, Sparks SG, Juneja VK, McClane BA: Comparative experiments to examine the effects of heating on vegetative cells and spores of Clostridium perfringens isolates carrying plasmid genes versus chromosomal enterotoxin genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000, 66: 3234-3240. 10.1128/AEM.66.8.3234-3240.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicholson WL, Munakata N, Horneck G, Melosh HJ, Setlow P: Resistance of Bacillus endospores to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2000, 64: 548-572. 10.1128/MMBR.64.3.548-572.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Setlow P: Mechanisms for the prevention of damage to DNA in spores of Bacillus species. Ann Rev Microbiol. 1995, 49: 29-54. 10.1146/annurev.mi.49.100195.000333.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Setlow P: Small, acid-soluble proteins of Bacillus species: structure, synthesis, genetics, function and degradation. Ann Rev Microbiol. 1988, 42: 319-338. 10.1146/annurev.mi.42.100188.001535.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fairhead H, Setlow B, Setlow P: Prevention of DNA damage in spores and in vitro by small, acid-soluble proteins from Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1993, 175: 1367-1374.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mason JM, Setlow P: Essential role of small, acid-soluble spore proteins in resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to UV light. J Bacteriol. 1986, 167: 174-178.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Setlow B, Setlow P: Binding of small, acid-soluble spore proteins to DNA plays a significant role in the resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to hydrogen peroxide. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993, 59: 3418-3423.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Setlow B, Setlow CA, Setlow P: Killing bacterial spores by organic hydroperoxidases. J Ind Microbiol. 1997, 18: 384-388. 10.1038/sj.jim.2900399.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cabrera-Mattinez RM, Mason JM, Setlow B, Waites WM, Setlow P: Purification and amino acid sequence of two small, acid-soluble proteins from Clostridium bifermentans spores. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989, 61: 139-144.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Granum PE, Richardson M, Bolm H: Isolation and amino acid sequence of an acid soluble spore protein from Clostridium perfringens. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1987, 42: 225-230.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Setlow P, Waites WM: identification of several unique low molecular weight basic proteins in dormant spores of Clostridium bifermentans and their degradation during spore germination. J Bacteriol. 1976, 127: 1015-1017.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cabrera-Martine RM, Setlow P: Cloning and nucleotide sequence of three genes coding for small, acid-soluble proteins of Clostridium perfringens spores. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1991, 77: 127-132.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Holck A, Bolm H, Granum PE: Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding acid-soluble spore proteins from Clostridium perfringens. Gene. 1990, 92: 107-111. 10.1016/0378-1119(90)90169-R.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shimizu T, Ohtani K, Hirakawa H, Ohshima K, Yamashita A, Shiba T, Ogasawara N, Hattori M, Kuhara S, Hayashi H: Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002, 99: 996-1001. Epub 2002 Jan 15.. 10.1073/pnas.022493799.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang IH, Waters M, Grau RR, Sarker MR: Disruption of the gene (spo0A) encoding sporulation transcription factor blocks endospore formation and enterotoxin production in enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004, 233: 233-240.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Setlow B, Dongxu S, Setlow P: Interaction between DNA and alpha/beta-type small. acid-soluble spore proteins: a new class of DNA-binding protein. J Bacteriol. 1992, 174: 2312-2322.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Awad MM, Bryant AE, Stevens DL, Rood JI: Virulence studies on chromosomal alpha-toxin and theta-toxin mutants constructed by allelic exchange provide genetic evidence for the essential role of alpha-toxin in Clostridium perfringens-mediated gas gangrene. Mol Microbiol. 1995, 15: 191-202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kokai-Kun JF, Songer JG, Czeczulin JR, Chen F, McClane BA: Comparison of Western immunoblots and gene detection assays for identification of potentially enterotoxigenic isolates of Clostridium perfringens. J Clin Microbiol. 1994, 32: 2533-2539.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collie RE, Kokai-kun JF, McClane BA: Phenotypic characterization of enteropathogenic Clostridium perfringens isolates from non-food-borne human gastrointestinal diseases. Anaerobes. 1998, 4: 69-79. 10.1006/anae.1998.0152.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Czeczulin JR, Collie RE, McClane BA: Regulated expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin in naturally cpe-negative type A, B, and C isolates of C. perfringens. Infect Immun. 1996, 64: 3301-3309.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bannam TL, Rood JI: Clostridium perfringens-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors that carry single antibiotic resistance determinants. Plasmid. 1993, 29: 233-235. 10.1006/plas.1993.1025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Melville SB, Labbe RG, Sonenshein AL: Expression from the Clostridium perfringens cpe promoter in Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus subtilis. Infect Immun. 1994, 62: 5550-5558.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jefferson RA, Burges SM, Hirsh D: b-Glucuronidase from E. coli as a gene-fusion marker. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986, 83: 8447-8451. 10.1073/pnas.83.22.8447.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zaho Y, Melville SB: Identifaction and characterization of sporulation-dependent promoter upstream of the enterotoxin gene (cpe) of Clostridium perfringens. J Bacteriol. 1998, 180: 136-142.Google Scholar
- Nicholson WL, Setlow P: Sporulation, germination and outgrowth. Molecular biological methods for Bacillus. Edited by: Cutting CRHSM. 1990, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons, 391-450.Google Scholar
- Collie RE, McClane BA: Evidence that the enterotoxin gene can be episomal in Clostridium perfringens isolates associated with non-food-borne human gastrointestinal diseases. J Clin Microbiol. 1998, 36: 30-36.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sloan J, Warner TA, Scott PT, Bannam TL, Berryman DI, Rood JI: Construction of a sequenced Clostridium perfringens-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid. Plasmid. 1992, 27: 207-219.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.