- Methodology article
- Open Access
A new simple method for introducing an unmarked mutation into a large gene of non-competent Gram-negative bacteria by FLP/FRT recombination
© Ishikawa and Hori; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 21 January 2013
- Accepted: 15 April 2013
- Published: 17 April 2013
For the disruption of a target gene in molecular microbiology, unmarked mutagenesis is preferable to marked mutagenesis because the former method raises no concern about the polar effect and leaves no selection marker. In contrast to naturally competent bacteria, there is no useful method for introducing an unmarked mutation into a large gene of non-competent bacteria. Nevertheless, large genes encoding huge proteins exist in diverse bacteria and are interesting and important for physiology and potential applications. Here we present a new method for introducing an unmarked mutation into such large genes of non-competent Gram-negative bacteria.
Two gene replacement plasmids, pJQFRT and pKFRT/FLP, were constructed to apply the FLP/FRT recombination system to introduce an unmarked mutation into a large gene of non-competent Gram-negative bacteria. In our methodology, pJQFRT and pKFRT/FLP are integrated into the upstream and the downstream regions of a target gene, respectively, through homologous recombination. The resultant mutant has antibiotic resistance markers, the sacB counter-selection marker, flp recombinase under the control of the tetR regulator, and identical FRT sites sandwiching the target gene and the markers on its chromosome. By inducing the expression of flp recombinase, the target gene is completely deleted together with the other genes derived from the integrated plasmids, resulting in the generation of an unmarked mutation. By this method, we constructed an unmarked mutant of ataA, which encodes the huge trimeric autotransporter adhesin (3,630 aa), in a non-competent Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5. The unmarked ataA mutant showed the same growth rate as wild type Tol 5, but lost the adhesive properties of Tol 5, similar to the transposon-inserted mutant of ataA that we generated previously.
The feasibility of our methodology was evidenced by the construction of an unmarked ataA mutant in the Tol 5 strain. Since FLP/FRT recombination can excise a long region of DNA exceeding 100 kb, our method has the potential to selectively disrupt much larger genes or longer regions of gene clusters than ataA. Our methodology allows the straightforward and efficient introduction of an unmarked mutation into a large gene or gene cluster of non-enterobacterial Gram-negative bacteria.
- Gene disruption
- FLP/FRT recombination
- Non-competent bacteria
- Unmarked mutation
- Homologous recombination
- Large gene
- Gram-negative bacteria
Disruption of a target gene is essential for revealing the functions of the gene and/or its product exhibiting an organism’s phenotype, and this process is equally applicable to microbes. The approaches used to disrupt a target gene can be divided into marked and unmarked mutation methods. The marked method requires the integration of a selectable marker, such as an antibiotic resistance gene, into a target gene. Although the marker-inserted gene becomes inactive, the marker frequently affects the expression of other genes, the so-called polar effect. In addition, marked mutants usually obtain antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to introduce an additional mutation. In contrast, the unmarked method, which is also called a null or in-frame mutation, requires deletion of the open reading frame of a target gene from the microbial chromosome, raises no concern about the polar effect, and leaves no antibiotic resistance that would prevent the introduction of an additional mutation. Therefore, the unmarked method is preferable for gene disruption.
Some bacteria can be mutated by a PCR-based method, in which a PCR product of an allele containing a marker is introduced directly into the cell and exchanged for a target gene by homologous recombination, and the marker is subsequently excised in some way when in need of an unmarked mutant [1–3]. However, this method can only be used for limited kinds of bacteria because it requires bacterial cells to be sufficiently competent to ensure uptake of linear DNA. Non-competent Gram-negative bacteria are frequently mutated by a plasmid-based method, in which plasmid DNA is introduced into the cell by bacterial conjugation , and allelic marker exchange is then carried out by homologous recombination between the chromosomal DNA and the introduced allele on a gene replacement plasmid [5–7]. Since single crossover mutants are dominantly obtained in the plasmid-based method, counter-selection markers such as sacB, rpsL, and mutated pheS, which confer sensitivity to sucrose, streptomycin, and p-chloro-phenylalanine, respectively, are used frequently to further screen double crossover mutants, especially for an unmarked mutation. However, this method is empirically ineffective for deleting large genes from the chromosome. Thus, it is difficult to characterize the function of a large gene in non-competent bacteria by using an unmarked mutation. Nevertheless, bacteria have large genes that are interesting and important for physiology and potential applications, such as cell surface proteins that have repetitive structures and are involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation [11–15]. The repeats of a gene also disturb recombination at the targeted site on the chromosome and complicate the introduction of an unmarked mutation. Since there is no effective method for introducing an unmarked mutation that targets such large genes in non-competent bacteria, marked mutants have been used to characterize their functions.
The site-specific recombinase FLP, which is a yeast protein, works efficiently in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts [1, 2, 5, 16, 17]. When FLP recognition target (FRT) sites are aligned on the chromosome of a host cell in the same direction, FLP recombinase binds to them and specifically excises the region sandwiched between the two FRT sites. In both the PCR-based and the plasmid-based unmarked methods, the FLP/FRT recombination system has been employed to eliminate selectable markers inserted into the chromosome [1, 2, 5, 18].
Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 is an interesting Gram-negative bacterium that can metabolize various kinds of chemicals, including aromatic hydrocarbons, ethanol, triacylglycerol, and lactate [19, 20], has a hydrophobic cell surface that can adsorb to oil surfaces [21, 22], autoagglutinates [21, 23, 24], and exhibits high adhesiveness to various abiotic surfaces ranging from hydrophobic plastics to hydrophilic glass and stainless steel by bacterionanofibers [20, 24–26]. AtaA is a huge protein (3,630 aa) with a multi-repetitive structure, belongs to the trimeric autotransporter adhesin family , and forms an essential nanofiber for the adhesive phenotype of Tol 5 . Previously, we constructed a marked mutant of ataA by exchanging it with a transposon cassette-inserted allele. Since the competency of Tol 5 was quite low, allelic marker exchange was performed by the plasmid-based method using the sacB marker. Although an unmarked mutant is more preferable to a marked mutant, the excision of ataA from the chromosome of Tol 5 was considered quite difficult due to the size and the repetitive structure of ataA (10,893 bp). In this study, we focused on the ability of FLP/FRT recombination to excise a long region of chromosomal DNA  and considered it to be suitable for introducing an unmarked mutation into a large gene. Here, we developed a new system for targeted gene disruption by FLP/FRT recombination in non-competent Gram-negative bacteria, and then constructed an unmarked ataA mutant from Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 in order to demonstrate the feasibility of our methodology.
A new unmarked plasmid-based mutation for non-competent bacteria
In our methodology, the new gene replacement plasmids pJQFRT and pKFRT/FLP are used for introducing the unmarked mutation. Since these plasmids are mobilized by bacterial conjugation, there is no concern about the nucleolytic degradation of the introduced plasmid DNA, unlike linear DNA. Besides, flp recombinase is cloned under the regulation of the tet promoter in pKFRT/FLP and is integrated into the chromosome of the recipient strain after homologous recombination. Therefore, our method obviates the need for helper plasmids expressing FLP recombinase and λ Red recombinase, which prevents degradation of the introduced linear DNA . Our method can be used in various species of Gram-negative bacteria except for E. coli and some enterobacteria, independent of their competency and recombination ability.
Implementation of the new method for the deletion of a large gene from the Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 chromosome
To demonstrate the feasibility of the new mutagenesis method described above, we constructed an unmarked mutant of ataA in Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5. This is a good model for the introduction of an unmarked mutation into a large gene of non-competent Gram-negative bacteria because Tol 5 has quite low competency, even by electroporation, and ataA is 10,893 bp long.
To excise ataA together with the region derived from the integrated plasmids, flp recombinase was induced by adding anhydrotetracycline to the culture of Tol 5 G4K1. After incubation for recombination by FLP, the cell suspension was plated on a medium containing 5% sucrose. Although unmarked ataA mutants were selectable on the sucrose plate, the sucrose-resistant colonies possibly included spontaneous sacB mutants. Thus, we confirmed the excision of ataA by PCR using the primers AtaAupstF2/AtaAdwstR2, which anneal to the outside of the flanking regions of ataA used as the homologous sites for recombination (Figure 3). PCR amplicons were not detected from template chromosomes of Tol 5, G4, and G4K1 due to the large size of ataA. In contrast, a small DNA fragment was amplified from the chromosome of a sucrose-resistant mutant, Tol 5 4140, indicating the excision of ataA. Sequencing of the amplicon proved that ataA and the regions derived from the two plasmids were completely excised from the chromosome, and that sequences of the 1-kb and 2.8-kb flanking regions of ataA coincided with those of wild type Tol 5 (Tol 5 WT).
Although, in this study, we constructed the unmarked ataA mutant by excising a 10-kb segment from the chromosome of Tol 5, our new method can theoretically be used to disrupt a larger gene in other non-competent Gram-negative bacteria because Pósfai et al. successfully excised 51-kb and 110-kb DNA segments from the chromosome of E. coli K-12 MG1655 by FLP/FRT recombination . Bap (8,620 aa) from Acinetobacter baumannii 307–0294, LapA (8,683 aa) from Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365, and LapF (6,310 aa) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 are larger proteins than AtaA (3,630 aa) and play an important role in adhesion to solid surfaces and biofilm formation [11, 14, 15, 31]. Since there was no useful method for introducing an unmarked mutation into large genes encoding them, random transposon mutants have been used to characterize the phenotype generated by a deficiency of those genes. By using our new unmarked method, such large genes can be easily and efficiently deleted from non-competent Gram-negative bacteria, and mutants that are more appropriate than marked mutants for the analysis of phenotypic changes can be obtained. In addition to functional analyses of large genes, our unmarked method would be effective for the metabolic engineering of bacteria to produce conventional fermentation products, biofuels, medicines, and chemicals by deleting long regions of metabolism-related gene clusters disturbing their production.
We designed two gene replacement plasmids and developed a new methodology for the construction of an unmarked mutant using the FLP/FRT recombination system. This methodology overcomes the problems associated with introducing an unmarked mutation into a large gene of non-competent Gram-negative bacteria. Using this method, we successfully constructed an unmarked mutant of ataA of Tol 5, which is 10,893 bp long. The plasmids and the methodology should be applicable to a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria except for E. coli and some enterobacteria and are expected to be useful tools to characterize the functions of large genes.
Bacterial strains, plasmids, and growth conditions
Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study
Wild type strain
A Tol 5 mutant constructed by insertion of a FRT site in the upstream of ataA of Tol 5, Gmr, SacB
A Tol 5 mutant constructed by additional insertion of a FRT site in the downstream of ataA of G4, Gmr, Kmr, SacB
Unmarked ΔataA mutant of Tol 5 constructed by FLP/FRT recombination in G4K1
Host for routine cloning
Donor strain for conjugation
Mobile plasmid, SacB, Gmr
Mobile plasmid, Kmr
Source of FRT sites, Kmr
Source of FLP recombinase and tetR, Ampr
Gene replacement vector harboring a single FRT sequence, SacB, and Gmr
Mobile plasmid harboring a single FRT sequence, Kmr
Gene replacement vector harboring a single FRT sequence, FLP recombinase under the control of Ptet promoter, and Kmr
A 1.0-kb fragment containing the upstream region of ataA ligated into the BamHI site of pJQFRT
A 2.8-kb fragment containing the downstream region of ataA ligated into the BamHI site of pKFRT/FLP
Primers used in this study
Sequence (5′ → 3′)
Construction of pJQFRT and pKFRT/FLP
Two mobile plasmids, pJQ200sk  and pK18mob , were used as the plasmid backbone. To remove their original multiple cloning sites, inverse-PCR was performed using the primers Inv-pUC118F/Inv-pUC118R. Substitute multiple cloning sites containing a single FRT sequence were amplified by PCR from pLOI 2224  using the primer sets FRT-T7F/FRT-SP6R and FRT-leftF/FRT-rightR, and then ligated with the inverse-PCR products of pJQ200sk and pK18mob, generating pJQFRT and pKFRT, respectively. To introduce the FLP recombinase gene under the control of an inducible promoter into pKFRT, inverse-PCR was performed using the primers FRT-rightR/Inv-pUC118F. A cassette containing tetR, the Ptet promoter, and flp recombinase was amplified by PCR from pFT-A  using TetR-FLP2F/TetR-FLP2R, and then ligated with the inverse-PCR product of pKFRT, generating pKFRT/FLP. The sequence data have been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank: accession numbers [AB773261] for pJQFRT and [AB773262] for pKFRT/FLP.
Construction of an unmarked ataA mutant of Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5
The Tol 5 strain was mated with E. coli S17-1 harboring pJQFRT_AtaAupstream on LB medium at 28°C for 20 h. The cells were collected in 1 ml of a 0.85% NaCl solution, plated on a BS agar plate containing gentamicin (100 μg/ml), supplied with toluene vapor as a carbon source, and incubated at 28°C for 2 days. The resulting colonies, which were resistant to gentamicin, were confirmed for the chromosomal integration of the plasmid by PCR using the primers AtaAupstF2/FRT-SP6R; thus, the Tol 5 G4 mutant was obtained. Subsequently, Tol 5 G4 was mated with E.coli S17-1 harboring pKFRT/FLP_AtaAdownstream using the same procedure described above, except for the use of a selection plate containing kanamycin (100 μg/ml) and gentamicin (100 μg/ml). The resulting colonies, which were resistant to gentamicin and kanamycin, were confirmed for the chromosomal integration of the plasmid by PCR using the primers FRT-leftF/AtaAdwstR2; thus, the Tol 5 G4 K1 mutant was obtained. For the excision of ataA and markers by FLP/FRT recombination, Tol 5 G4K1 was pre-cultured in 2 ml LB medium overnight. The overnight culture was diluted 1:100 in 20 ml fresh LB medium without antibiotics and incubated at 28°C. When the optical density of the culture broth at 660 nm reached 0.5, anhydrotetracycline was added to a final concentration of 400 ng/ml. After a 6 h incubation to induce the expression of FLP, Tol 5 G4K1 cells were seeded on a BS agar plate containing 5% sucrose and incubated at 28°C for 24 h. The resultant colonies, which were resistant to sucrose, were transferred using toothpicks to gentamicin- and kanamycin-containing BS agar plates. Desirable mutants that were sensitive to the antibiotics, but resistant to sucrose, were examined for the successful excision of the target region by PCR using the primers AtaAupstF2/AtaAdwstR2; thus, the unmarked mutant Tol 5 4140 was obtained.
Acinetobacter strains were grown to the stationary phase in LB medium. The optical density (OD) at 660 nm of their cultures was adjusted to 1.0 with flesh LB medium. One milliliter of the cell suspension was harvested by centrifugation, resuspended in 50 μl of SDS-PAGE sample buffer, and boiled at 95°C for 5 min. The prepared whole cell lysates were subjected to Western-blot and immunodetection as described previously .
Adherence and autoagglutination assays
Acinetobacter strains were grown in LB medium, harvested by centrifugation, and resuspended in BS-N medium  that did not contain carbon or nitrogen sources. The cell suspensions were subjected to the adherence and autoagglutination assays as described previously [24, 28].
We are grateful for receiving vectors from the cloning vector collection distributed by “National BioResource (NIG, Japan): E. coli.” We also thank Yuka Onishi for helping with the experiments. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through the “Funding Program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers (NEXT Program),” initiated by the Council for Science and Technology Policy in Japan.
- Datsenko KA, Wanner BL: One-step inactivation of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli K-12 using PCR products. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000, 97: 6640-6645. 10.1073/pnas.120163297.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tracy E, Ye F, Baker BD, Munson RS: Construction of non-polar mutants in Haemophilus influenzae using FLP recombinase technology. BMC Mol Biol. 2008, 9: 101-10.1186/1471-2199-9-101.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Metzgar D, Bacher JM, Pezo V, Reader J, Döring V, Schimmel P, Marlière P, de Crécy-Lagard V: Acinetobacter sp. ADP1: an ideal model organism for genetic analysis and genome engineering. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32: 5780-5790. 10.1093/nar/gkh881.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Simon R, Priefer U, Pühler A: A broad host range mobilization system for in vivo genetic engineering: Transposon mutagenesis in gram negative bacteria. Bio/Technology. 1983, 1: 784-791. 10.1038/nbt1183-784.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoang TT, Karkhoff-Schweizer RR, Kutchma AJ, Schweizer HP: A broad-host-range Flp-FRT recombination system for site-specific excision of chromosomally-located DNA sequences: application for isolation of unmarked Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants. Gene. 1998, 212: 77-86. 10.1016/S0378-1119(98)00130-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaniga K, Delor I, Cornelis GR: A wide-host-range suicide vector for improving reverse genetics in gram-negative bacteria: inactivation of the blaA gene of Yersinia enterocolitica. Gene. 1991, 109: 137-141. 10.1016/0378-1119(91)90599-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reyrat JM, Pelicic V, Gicquel B, Rappuoli R: Counterselectable markers: untapped tools for bacterial genetics and pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 1998, 66: 4011-4017.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ried JL, Collmer A: An nptI-sacB-sacR cartridge for constructing directed, unmarked mutations in gram-negative bacteria by marker exchange-eviction mutagenesis. Gene. 1987, 57: 239-246. 10.1016/0378-1119(87)90127-2.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Skrzypek E, Haddix PL, Plano GV, Straley SC: New suicide vector for gene replacement in Yersiniae and other gram-negative bacteria. Plasmid. 1993, 29: 160-163. 10.1006/plas.1993.1019.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kast P: pKSS-a second-generation general purpose cloning vector for efficient positive selection of recombinant clones. Gene. 1994, 138: 109-114. 10.1016/0378-1119(94)90790-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Loehfelm TW, Luke NR, Campagnari AA: Identification and characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm-associated protein. J Bacteriol. 2008, 190: 1036-1044. 10.1128/JB.01416-07.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yousef F, Espinosa-Urgel M: In silico analysis of large microbial surface proteins. Res Microbiol. 2007, 158: 545-550. 10.1016/j.resmic.2007.04.006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lasa I, Penadés JR: Bap: a family of surface proteins involved in biofilm formation. Res Microbiol. 2006, 157: 99-107. 10.1016/j.resmic.2005.11.003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hinsa SM, O’Toole GA: Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365: a role for LapD. Microbiology. 2006, 152: 1375-1383. 10.1099/mic.0.28696-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hinsa SM, Espinosa-Urgel M, Ramos JL, O’Toole GA: Transition from reversible to irreversible attachment during biofilm formation by Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 requires an ABC transporter and a large secreted protein. Mol Microbiol. 2003, 49: 905-918. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03615.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Golic KG, Lindquist S: The FLP recombinase of yeast catalyzes site-specific recombination in the Drosophila genome. Cell. 1989, 59: 499-509. 10.1016/0092-8674(89)90033-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- O’Gorman S, Fox DT, Wahl GM: Recombinase-mediated gene activation and site-specific integration in mammalian cells. Science. 1991, 251: 1351-1355. 10.1126/science.1900642.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barrett AR, Kang Y, Inamasu KS, Son MS, Vukovich JM, Hoang TT: Genetic tools for allelic replacement in Burkholderia species. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008, 74: 4498-4508. 10.1128/AEM.00531-08.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hori K, Yamashita S, Ishii S, Kitagawa M, Tanji Y, Unno H: Isolation, characterization and application to off-gas treatment of toluene-degrading bacteria. J Chem Eng Japan. 2001, 39: 175-184.Google Scholar
- Hori K, Ishikawa M, Yamada M, Higuchi A, Ishikawa Y, Ebi H: Production of peritrichate bacterionanofibers and their proteinaceous components by Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 cells affected by growth substrates. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011, 111: 31-36. 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.08.009.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hori K, Watanabe H, Ishii S, Tanji Y, Unno H: Monolayer adsorption of a“ bald” mutant of the highly adhesive and hydrophobic bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5 to a hydrocarbon surface. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008, 74: 2511-2517. 10.1128/AEM.02229-07.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Watanabe H, Tanji Y, Unno H, Hori K: Rapid conversion of toluene by an Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 mutant showing monolayer adsorption to water-oil interface. J Biosci Bioeng. 2008, 106: 226-230. 10.1263/jbb.106.226.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishii S, Miyata S, Hotta Y, Yamamoto K, Unno H, Hori K: Formation of filamentous appendages by Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 for adhering to solid surfaces. J Biosci Bioeng. 2008, 105: 20-25. 10.1263/jbb.105.20.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishikawa M, Shigemori K, Suzuki A, Hori K: Evaluation of adhesiveness of Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 to abiotic surfaces. J Biosci Bioeng. 2012, 113: 719-725. 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2012.01.011.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishii S, Koki J, Unno H, Hori K: Two morphological types of cell appendages on a strongly adhesive bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004, 70: 5026-5029. 10.1128/AEM.70.8.5026-5029.2004.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishii S, Unno H, Miyata S, Hori K: Effect of cell appendages on the adhesion properties of a highly adhesive bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006, 70: 2635-2640. 10.1271/bbb.60236.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Linke D, Riess T, Autenrieth IB, Lupas A, Kempf VA: Trimeric autotransporter adhesins: variable structure, common function. Trends Microbiol. 2006, 14: 264-270. 10.1016/j.tim.2006.04.005.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishikawa M, Nakatani H, Hori K: AtaA, a new member of the trimeric autotransporter adhesins from Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5 mediating high adhesiveness to various abiotic surfaces. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e48830-10.1371/journal.pone.0048830.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pósfai G, Koob M, Hradecná Z, Hasan N, Filutowicz M, Szybalski W: In vivo excision and amplification of large segments of the Escherichia coli genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994, 22: 2392-2398. 10.1093/nar/22.12.2392.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Murphy KC: Use of bacteriophage lambda recombination functions to promote gene replacement in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1998, 180: 2063-2071.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Martínez-Gil M, Yousef-Coronado F, Espinosa-Urgel M: LapF, the second largest Pseudomonas putida protein, contributes to plant root colonization and determines biofilm architecture. Mol Microbiol. 2010, 77: 549-561. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07249.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Quandt J, Hynes MF: Versatile suicide vectors which allow direct selection for gene replacement in gram-negative bacteria. Gene. 1993, 127: 15-21. 10.1016/0378-1119(93)90611-6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schäfer A, Tauch A, Jäger W, Kalinowski J, Thierbach G, Pühler A: Small mobilizable multi-purpose cloning vectors derived from the Escherichia coli plasmids pK18 and pK19: selection of defined deletions in the chromosome of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Gene. 1994, 145: 69-73. 10.1016/0378-1119(94)90324-7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martinez-Morales F, Borges AC, Martinez A, Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO: Chromosomal integration of heterologous DNA in Escherichia coli with precise removal of markers and replicons used during construction. J Bacteriol. 1999, 181: 7143-7148.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.