- Research article
- Open Access
Chlamydia pneumoniae effector chlamydial outer protein N sequesters fructose bisphosphate aldolase A, providing a benefit to bacterial growth
© Ishida et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2014
- Received: 26 August 2014
- Accepted: 16 December 2014
- Published: 21 December 2014
Pathogenic chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens and have adapted successfully to human cells, causing sexually transmitted diseases or pneumonia. Chlamydial outer protein N (CopN) is likely a critical effector protein secreted by the type III secretion system in chlamydiae, which manipulates host cells. However, the mechanisms of its action remain to be clarified. In this work, we aimed to identify previously unidentified CopN effector target in host cells.
We first performed a pull-down assay with recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion CopN proteins (GST–CpCopN: Chlamydia pneumoniae TW183, GST–CtCopN: Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/CX) as “bait” and soluble lysates obtained from human immortal epithelial HEp-2 cells as “prey”, followed by SDS-PAGE with mass spectroscopy (MS). We found that a host cell protein specifically bound to GST–CpCopN, but not GST–CtCopN. MS revealed the host protein to be fructose bisphosphate aldolase A (aldolase A), which plays a key role in glycolytic metabolism. We also confirmed the role of aldolase A in chlamydia-infected HEp-2 cells by using two distinct experiments for gene knockdown with an siRNA specific to aldolase A transcripts, and for assessment of glycolytic enzyme gene expression levels. As a result, both the numbers of chlamydial inclusion-forming units and RpoD transcripts were increased in the chlamydia-infected aldolase A knockdown cells, as compared with the wild-type HEp-2 cells. Meanwhile, chlamydial infection tended to enhance expression of aldolase A.
We discovered that one of the C. pneumoniae CopN targets is the glycolytic enzyme aldolase A. Sequestering aldolase A may be beneficial to bacterial growth in infected host cells.
- Chlamydia pneumoniae
- Type III secretion
- Chlamydial outer protein N
Obligate intracellular pathogens Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis are major clinical and public health concerns, and cause pneumonia , and the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide ,, respectively. Although C. pneumoniae is also associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma  and atherosclerosis , its etiological role remains to be clarified.
Chlamydiae undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle, with a morphological change between the elemental body (EB), which is an infectious form, and reticulate body (RB), which is a replicative form, into the surrounding plasma membrane, the so-called inclusion membrane -. To complete their developmental cycle, chlamydiae utilize the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate several effector proteins across the inclusion membrane . Accumulating evidence from experiments with Shigella or Salmonella have shown that T3SS effectors play a critical role in bacterial invasion and maturation, and maintenance of host cell viability, which is directly related to bacterial pathogenesis ,. Although several chlamydial T3SS effectors such as translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (TARP) , inclusion membrane protein A (IncA) , and chlamydial outer protein N (CopN)  have been documented, mechanisms of host cell manipulation evoked by these effectors remain to be clarified.
Gram-negative bacterial T3SS is a complex of multiple proteins including tip, needle, rod and plug proteins, and ATPase , and the effector proteins translocating across the plasma membrane are strictly regulated by the plug proteins. For instance, MxiC, a plug protein of Shigella flexneri, regulates effector secretion ,. The activation of Yersinia T3SS effector secretion is controlled by YopN/TyeA as a plug complex of Yersinia T3SS in response to extracellular calcium and/or contact with eukaryotic cells ,. Also, translocation of some plug proteins such as YopN or MxiC into eukaryotic host cells has been documented ,. Thus, these bacterial plug molecules, possibly with effector function, have a central role into controlling T3SS effector secretion.
Recent work has shown that chlamydial CopN, which is homologous to YopN and MxiC but with low similarity, is a T3SS plug protein, and is secreted by a Yersinia type III apparatus ,,. Also, CopN domain structure analysis using gel filtration assay with His-tagged recombinant proteins has revealed that CopN binds to tubulin, which prevents microtubule assembly . Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid analysis has shown the essential role of the CopN effector protein in C. pneumoniae intracellular growth . Thus, these findings support that chlamydial CopN has a critical role as a T3SS plug with effector function in the chlamydial host manipulation system. Whether the CopN targets tubulin alone remains to be determined.
Here, we showed that C. pneumoniae CopN interacted with a glycolytic enzyme, fructose bisphosphate aldolase A (aldolase A). Our data also suggested that sequestering aldolase A was beneficial to bacterial growth in infected cells.
Human cell lines
The immortal human epithelial cell lines HEp-2 and HeLa were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA) and Riken Cell Bank (Tsukuba, Japan), respectively. Both the cell lines were cultured at 37°C in 5% CO2 in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM; Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS), and antibiotics [10-μg/ml gentamicin, 10-μg/ml vancomycin and 0.5-μg/ml amphotericin B (Sigma)] (GVA antibiotics) ,.
Chlamydiae and growth conditions
C. pneumoniae TW183 strain was kindly provided by G. Byrne, University of Tennessee (Memphis). C. trachomatis D/UW3 CX strain (VR-885) was purchased from ATCC. Chlamydiae were propagated in HEp-2 and HeLa cells, as described previously ,. DMEM supplemented with 20% FCS and GVA antibiotics was used for cell culture. The infected HeLa and HEp-2 cells were harvested at 48 and 72 h after infection, respectively, and stored at −80°C. The cell suspensions were disrupted by freezing–thawing and centrifugation at 400 × g to remove cell debris. The bacteria were collected by centrifugation at 1000 × g and resuspended in sucrose–phosphate–glutamic acid buffer (0.2-M sucrose, 3.8-mM KH2PO4, 6.7-mM Na2HPO4 and 5-mM l-glutamic acid). The bacteria were stored at −80°C until use. The number of bacterial infectious particles equal to EBs was determined by inclusion-forming unit (IFU) assay  as described below. Both bacterial genomic DNAs were extracted with High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit (Roche, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and used as a template DNA for copN genes cloning.
Construction of recombinant CopNs
Full-length copN genes [CpcopN: C. pneumoniae TW183, CpB0334 (NC_005043.1); CtcopN: C. trachomatis UW-3/CX serovar D, CT_089 (NC_000117.1)] were amplified from each of the genomic DNA templates. The amplified DNA products were cloned to the downstream of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene region into pGEX-6P-1 plasmid (GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences AB, Uppsala, Sweden). pGEX-6P-1 plasmid was kindly provided by I. Hirai, University of the Ryukyus (Okinawa, Japan). GST-fused recombinant proteins were finally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in Luria–Bertani medium with 0.1-mM isopropyl-1-thio-β-d-galactopyranoside for 4 h at 37°C. The bacteria were collected by centrifugation and then lysed chemically using bacterial protein extraction reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). After centrifugation to remove bacterial debris, GST-fusion proteins were prepared from the supernatant by using glutathione–agarose beads (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and the protein concentrations were determined using the Bradford assay. The solutions were adequately dispensed and stored at −80°C until use.
Pull-down assay with mass spectrometry (MS)
GST-fusion proteins were mixed with the soluble fraction obtained from HEp-2 cells, and then incubated for 4–12 h at 4°C in cell lysis buffer containing 40-mM Tris–HCl (pH 7.5), 150-mM sodium chloride, 0.5% Triton-X-100, and 1% protease inhibitor cocktail (Nacalai Tesque, Kyoto, Japan) in the presence of glutathione–agarose beads (Thermo Fisher Scientific). After washing with 50-mM Tris–HCl (pH 6.8), the captured proteins on beads were eluted with sample buffer for SDS-PAGE. Protein profiles into the eluted solutions were visualized by SDS-PAGE with Coomassie brilliant blue staining, and the specific band presumably captured by CopN was cut out from the gel, and then used for nano-liquid chromatography tandem MS (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis (Japan Bio Services, Saitama, Japan). The MS analysis was carried out by the Japan Bio Services.
RNA extraction and conventional or quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)
Total RNA was extracted from chlamydia-infected or uninfected HEp-2 cells using High Pure RNA Isolation Kit (Roche) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Reverse transcription of 500-ng total RNA was performed with ReverTraAce qPCR RT Master Mix (Toyobo, Osaka, Japan). Resultant cDNAs were used for PCR amplification with the following primers: (gapdh) (forward 5′-AAC GGG AAG CTC ACT GGC ATG-3′; reverse 5′-TCC ACC ACC CTG TTG CTG TAG-3′) , aldolase A (forward 5′-CGC AGA AGG GGT CCT GGT GA-3′; reverse 5′-CAG CTC CTT CTT CTG CTC CGG GGT-3′) , enolase (forward 5′-GAG CTC CGG GAC AAT GAT AA-3′; reverse 5′-CTG TTC CA TCC ATC TCG ATC-3′) , β-actin (forward 5′-GAC CAC ACC TTC TAC AAT GAG-3′; reverse 5′-GCA TAC CCC TCG TAG ATG GG-3′)  and chlamydial 16S rRNA (forward 5′-CGG CGT GGA TGA GGC AT-3′; reverse 5′-TCA GTC CCA GTG TTG GC-3′) . PCR conditions were 95°C for 10 min, followed by 25–40 cycles of 95°C for 30 s, 55 or 60°C for 30 s and 72°C for 45 s, followed by 72°C for 10 min. PCR products were visualized on 2% agarose gels with ethidium bromide. For qRT-PCR, resultant cDNAs were also amplified by SYBR Green Realtime PCR Master Mix (Toyobo) using the above primer sets. The transcript amount of target gene products was expressed as a ratio to that of β-actin.
Establishment of aldolase A knockdown cells and chlamydial infection
Transient aldolase A knockdown HEp-2 cells were established by 24-h transfection of cells with siRNA as follows: passenger strand, 5′-CCG AGA ACA CCG AGG AGA A dTdT-3′; guide strand, 5′-UUC UCC UCG GUG UUC UCG G dTdT-3′. Non-targeting scramble RNA was also constructed by Hokkaido System Science (Sapporo, Japan) as follows: passenger strand, 5′-UUC UCC GAA CGU GUC ACG UdTdT-3′; guide strand, 5′-ACG UGA CAC GUU CGG AGG AGA AdTdT-3′. Transfection of siRNA (or scramble RNA) to cells was performed with a transfection reagent, Multifectam (Promega, Madison, WI, USA), according to the manufacturer’s protocol as below. Transfection complexes were prepared by incubating 20 μL of the prepared siRNA [or scramble RNA (1.0 pmol/μl)] with 10-μl Multifectam for 30 min at room temperature. After incubation, total transfection complexes were added to HEp-2 cells adjusted to 1 × 105 cells, and then incubated for 24 h at 37°C in 5% CO2. Expression of aldolase A was confirmed by Western blotting. At 24 h after transfection, HEp-2 cells were infected with chlamydiae at MOI 5 by centrifugation at 400 × g for 1 h. After washing uninfected bacteria with DMEM, chlamydia-infected cells were cultured for up to 72 h, and bacterial growth was monitored by IFU assay and Western blotting.
IFU assay and inclusion images
The number of chlamydial infectious particles (EBs) was determined by IFU assay by counting chlamydial inclusions formed in HEp-2 cells using fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal anti-Chlamydia antibody specific for Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (with Evans Blue) (Denka Seiken, Tokyo, Japan), as described previously . In some experiments, the cells were grown on cover glass, and chlamydial inclusion images were captured using a digital camera with a fluorescence microscope.
Infected and uninfected cells collected from each culture were boiled for 5 min in SDS sample buffer containing 2-mercaptoethanol. After boiling, each sample was sonicated to remove viscosity. Samples were loaded and separated by 10% (w/v) SDS-PAGE. Separated proteins were transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes by semi-dry electroblotting. The membrane was blocked with 5% skimmed milk in Tris-buffered saline including Tween-20 (TBST). After washing the blocked membrane with TBST, the membrane was incubated with a primary antibody [mouse anti-GST monoclonal antibody (Nacalai Tesque), rabbit anti-human aldolase A polyclonal antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA), mouse anti-α-tubulin monoclonal antibody (Sigma–Aldrich) and rabbit anti-RpoD polyclonal antibody (prepared by Sigma–Aldrich)] for 1 h at room temperature. This was followed by a secondary antibody [horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG and IgM antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch, West Grove, PA, USA) and HRP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody (KPL, Gaithersburg, MD, USA)] for 1 h at room temperature. Labeled proteins were visualized with Pierce Western Blotting Substrate (Thermo Fisher Scientific).
Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Comparison of data was performed using an unpaired Student t test. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. All experiments were repeated at least three times.
Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens infecting various vertebrate cells, including human. To optimize the intracellular niche for their propagation, chlamydiae utilize several T3SS effector proteins. Several chlamydial T3SS effectors including TARP , IncA  and CopN  have been reported with detailed protein structures, and these provide hints for elucidating how chlamydiae manipulate host cells, resulting in successful adaptation. CopN effector is well conserved among chlamydiae, functioning both as the T3SS plug and a secreted effector protein . The effector protein is responsible for a central role in chlamydial adaptation to host cells. Recent studies have elegantly demonstrated that CopN manipulates host cells, causing mitotic arrest , and that CopN interacts with tubulin, preventing microtubule assembly ,. However, whether the CopN targets tubulin alone remains undetermined. In this work, we therefore attempted to find previously unidentified chlamydial CopN effector targets in host cells.
C. pneumoniae CopN interacts with human aldolase A
To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to show that chlamydial CopN could capture human aldolase A. Intriguingly, because no specific protein was seen in the case of C. trachomatis CopN, this capturing was specific to C. pneumoniae CopN effector. The exact reason for specific binding remains unclear, but it is likely associated with the low amino acid sequence similarity (48%) between the CopNs. Furthermore, previous work has indicated that while C. pneumoniae directly secretes CopN into the host cytosol across the inclusion membrane, C. trachomatis CopN is embedded in the inclusion membrane, and is never translocated to the host cell cytosol, suggesting that the target molecule of C. trachomatis CopN may be buried in the membrane fraction, without high solubility . Taken together, the findings imply a possible different effector target and function between C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis CopNs.
Our pull-down system with GST-fused CopN proteins and cell lysates unfortunately could not capture microtubulin, which is a cytoskeletal fiber, as described previously . That research group used a gel filtration assay with microtubulin pelleting required for large amounts of recombinant proteins ; thus, there might have been a critical difference in detection sensitivity. Alternatively, the previous study also indicated that, in contrast to tubulin, C. pneumoniae CopN could not bind directly to microtubulin ; therefore, a possible explanation may be in our pull-down system with whole cell lysates, which naturally conserves cellular molecular structures.
Chlamydial growth is stimulated in aldolase A knockdown cells
As mentioned above, the exact reason why sequestering aldolase A is required for stimulating chlamydial growth in infected HEp-2 cells remains undetermined. Recent work has shown that multifunctional glycolytic enzymes including aldolase A have so-called “moonlight functions” ,. For example, it is well known that aldolase A binds to F-actin , and this binding step is important for secondary moonlight functions, such as vesicle trafficking , or cell motility . Furthermore, aldolase A sequesters WASP and affects WASP/Arp2/3 complex associating with actin remodeling ,. WASP/Scar proteins stimulated by Rho family small GTPases in turn activate the Arp2/3 complex to create new actin filaments . More importantly, a recent study has indicated that caspase-1 digestome senses fragmented glycolytic enzymes, including aldolase A, digested in infected cells, resulting in cell death; a novel host defense system . Based on these findings, we now speculate that sequestering aldolase A by CopN may be a survival strategy of chlamydiae in infected host cells, via preventing host cell death. Similar to C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis growth was stimulated in aldolase A knockdown cells.
Aldolase A gene expression tends to increase in C. pneumoniae-infected cells
This is believed to be the first study to show the interaction between C. pneumoniae T3SS effector CopN and human aldolase A. Although more experiments are needed to reveal why CopN should bind to aldolase A, sequestering aldolase A may be beneficial to bacterial growth in infected host cells, contributing to our understand of chlamydial pathogenesis and complicated host–parasite relationships.
We thank Dr. Itaru Hirai who provided us with a plasmid vector, pGEX-6P-1 plasmid. This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Japan Society for the Promotion Science (JSPS) fellows (12 J03692) and scientific research from KAKENHI (21590474, 24659194, and 24117501 “Innovation Areas: Matryoshka-type evolution”).
- Blasi F, Tarsia P, Aliberti S: Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009, 15 (1): 29-35. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02130.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Belland RJ, Ouellette SP, Gieffers J, Byrne GI:Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. Cell Microbiol. 2001, 6 (2): 117-127. 10.1046/j.1462-5822.2003.00352.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gottlieb SL, Berman SM, Low N: Screening and treatment to prevent sequelae in women with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection: how much do we know?. J Infect Dis. 2010, 201 (Suppl 2): S156-S167. 10.1086/652396.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malik A, Jain S, Rizvi M, Shukla I, Hakim S:Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women with secondary infertility. Fertil Steril. 2009, 91 (1): 91-95. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.05.070.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hahn DL, Schure A, Patel K, Childs T, Drizik E, Webley W:Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific IgE is prevalent in asthma and is associated with disease severity. PLoS One. 2012, 7 (4): e35945-10.1371/journal.pone.0035945.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abdelrahman YM, Belland RJ: The chlamydial developmental cycle. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2005, 29 (5): 949-959. 10.1016/j.femsre.2005.03.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abromaitis S, Stephens RS: Attachment and entry of Chlamydia have distinct requirements for host protein disulfide isomerase. PLoS Pathog. 2009, 5 (4): e1000357-10.1371/journal.ppat.1000357.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hybiske K, Stephens RS: Mechanisms of host cell exit by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007, 104 (27): 11430-11435. 10.1073/pnas.0703218104.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Betts-Hampikian HJ, Fields KA: The chlamydial type III secretion mechanism: revealing cracks in a tough Nut. Front Microbiol. 2010, 1: 114-10.3389/fmicb.2010.00114.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carayol N, Tran Van Nhieu G: Tips and tricks about Shigella invasion of epithelial cells. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013, 16 (1): 32-37. 10.1016/j.mib.2012.11.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van der Heijden J, Finlay BB: Type III effector-mediated processes in Salmonella infection. Future Microbiol. 2012, 7 (6): 685-703. 10.2217/fmb.12.49.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clifton DR, Fields KA, Grieshaber SS, Dooley CA, Fischer ER, Mead DJ, Carabeo RA, Hackstadt T: A chlamydial type III translocated protein is tyrosine-phosphorylated at the site of entry and associated with recruitment of actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004, 101 (27): 10166-10171. 10.1073/pnas.0402829101.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Subtil A, Parsot C, Dautry-Varsat A: Secretion of predicted Inc proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae by a heterologous type III machinery. Mol Microbiol. 2001, 39 (3): 792-800. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02272.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fields KA, Hackstadt T: Evidence for the secretion of Chlamydia trachomatis CopN by a type III secretion mechanism. Mol Microbiol. 2000, 38 (5): 1048-1060. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.02212.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Enninga J, Rosenshine I: Imaging the assembly, structure and activity of type III secretion systems. Cell Microbiol. 2009, 11 (10): 1462-1470. 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01360.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Botteaux A, Sory MP, Biskri L, Parsot C, Allaoui A: MxiC is secreted by and controls the substrate specificity of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus. Mol Microbiol. 2009, 71 (2): 449-460. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06537.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martinez-Argudo I, Blocker AJ: The Shigella T3SS needle transmits a signal for MxiC release, which controls secretion of effectors. Mol Microbiol. 2010, 78 (6): 1365-1378. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07413.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Plano GV, Schesser K: The Yersinia pestis type III secretion system: expression, assembly and role in the evasion of host defenses. Immunol Res. 2013, 57 (1–3): 237-245. 10.1007/s12026-013-8454-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cornelis GR, Boland A, Boyd AP, Geuijen C, Iriarte M, Neyt C, Sory MP, Stainier I: The virulence plasmid of Yersinia, an antihost genome. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1998, 62 (4): 1315-1352.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferracci F, Schubot FD, Waugh DS, Plano GV: Selection and characterization of Yersinia pestis YopN mutants that constitutively block Yop secretion. Mol Microbiol. 2005, 57 (4): 970-987. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04738.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Herrmann M, Schuhmacher A, Mühldorfer I, Melchers K, Prothmann C, Dammeier S: Identification and characterization of secreted effector proteins of Chlamydophila pneumoniae TW183. Res Microbiol. 2006, 157 (6): 513-524. 10.1016/j.resmic.2005.12.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ho TD, Starnbach MN: The Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-encoded type III secretion systems can translocate Chlamydia trachomatis proteins into the cytosol of host cells. Infect Immun. 2005, 73 (2): 905-911. 10.1128/IAI.73.2.905-911.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Archuleta TL, Du Y, English CA, Lory S, Lesser C, Ohi MD, Ohi R, Spiller BW: The Chlamydia effector chlamydial outer protein N (CopN) sequesters tubulin and prevents microtubule assembly. J Biol Chem. 2011, 286 (39): 33992-33998. 10.1074/jbc.M111.258426.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang J, Lesser CF, Lory S: The essential role of the CopN protein in Chlamydia pneumoniae intracellular growth. Nature. 2008, 456 (7218): 112-115. 10.1038/nature07355.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ishida K, Kubo T, Saeki A, Yamane C, Matsuo J, Yimin , Nakamura S, Hayashi Y, Kunichika M, Yoshida M, Takahashi K, Hirai I, Yamamoto Y, Shibata K, Yamaguchi H:Chlamydophila pneumoniae in human immortal Jurkat cells and primary lymphocytes uncontrolled by interferon-γ. Microbes Infect. 2013, 15 (3): 192-200. 10.1016/j.micinf.2012.11.006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamazaki T, Matsuo J, Nakamura S, Oguri S, Yamaguchi H: Effect of Ureaplasma parvum co-incubation on Chlamydia trachomatis maturation in human epithelial HeLa cells treated with interferon-γ. J Infect Chemother. 2014, 20 (8): 460-464. 10.1016/j.jiac.2014.04.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi M, Ishida K, Matsuo J, Nakamura S, Nagasawa A, Motohashi K, Yao T, Hirai I, Yamamoto Y, Suzuki H, Shimizu C, Matsuno K, Yamaguchi H:Chlamydophila pneumoniae attachment and infection in low proteoglycan expressing human lymphoid Jurkat cells. Microb Pathog. 2011, 51 (3): 209-216. 10.1016/j.micpath.2011.03.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gnoatto N, Lotufo RF, Matsuda M, Penna V, Marquezini MV: Expression of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans in human cyclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth. J Periodontal Res. 2007, 42 (6): 553-558. 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2007.00981.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marone M, Mozzetti S, De Ritis D, Pierelli L, Scambia G: Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis to assess the expression levels of multiple transcripts from the same sample. Biol Proced Online. 2001, 3: 19-25. 10.1251/bpo20.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hamaguchi T, Iizuka N, Tsunedomi R, Hamamoto Y, Miyamoto T, Iida M, Tokuhisa Y, Sakamoto K, Takashima M, Tamesa T, Oka M: Glycolysis module activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is related to the aggressive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2008, 33 (4): 725-731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim SH, Kim KH, Yoo BC, Ku JL: Induction of LGR5 by H2O2 treatment is associated with cell proliferation via the JNK signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2012, 41 (5): 1744-1750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Everett KD, Bush RM, Andersen AA: Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999, Pt 2: 415-440. 10.1099/00207713-49-2-415.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nawrotek A, Guimarães BG, Velours C, Subtil A, Knossow M, Gigant B: Biochemical and Structural Insights into Microtubule Perturbation by CopN from Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Biol Chem. 2014, pii: jbc.M114.568436-Google Scholar
- Saka HA, Thompson JW, Chen YS, Kumar Y, Dubois LG, Moseley MA, Valdivia RH: Quantitative proteomics reveals metabolic and pathogenic properties of Chlamydia trachomatis developmental forms. Mol Microbiol. 2011, 82 (5): 1185-1203. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07877.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Morris AJ, Tolan DR, Pagliaro L: The molecular nature of the F-actin binding activity of aldolase revealed with site-directed mutants. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271 (12): 6861-6865. 10.1074/jbc.271.12.6708.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Reilly G, Clarke F: Identification of an actin binding region in aldolase. FEBS Lett. 1993, 321 (1): 69-72. 10.1016/0014-5793(93)80623-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Merkulova M, Hurtado-Lorenzo A, Hosokawa H, Zhuang Z, Brown D, Ausiello DA, Marshansky V: Aldolase directly interacts with ARNO and modulates cell morphology and acidic vesicle distribution. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011, 300 (6): C1442-C1455. 10.1152/ajpcell.00076.2010.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Du S, Guan Z, Hao L, Song Y, Wang L, Gong L, Liu L, Qi X, Hou Z, Shao S: Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase a is a potential metastasis-associated marker of lung squamous cell carcinoma and promotes lung cell tumorigenesis and migration. PLoS One. 2014, 9 (1): e85804-10.1371/journal.pone.0085804.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ritterson Lew C, Tolan DR: Aldolase sequesters WASP and affects WASP/Arp2/3-stimulated actin dynamics. J Cell Biochem. 2013, 114 (8): 1928-1939. 10.1002/jcb.24538.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buscaglia CA, Penesetti D, Tao M, Nussenzweig V: Characterization of an aldolase-binding site in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. J Biol Chem. 2006, 281 (3): 1324-1331. 10.1074/jbc.M506346200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pollard TD: The cytoskeleton, cellular motility and the reductionist agenda. Nature. 2003, 422 (6933): 741-745. 10.1038/nature01598.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shao W, Yeretssian G, Doiron K, Hussain SN, Saleh M: The caspase-1 digestome identifies the glycolysis pathway as a target during infection and septic shock. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282 (50): 36321-36329. 10.1074/jbc.M708182200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chambers MC, Song KH, Schneider DS:Listeria monocytogenes infection causes metabolic shifts in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS One. 2012, 7 (12): e50679-10.1371/journal.pone.0050679.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.