- Research article
- Open Access
Involvement of a phospholipase C in the hemolytic activity of a clinical strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens
© Rossignol et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 14 January 2008
- Accepted: 30 October 2008
- Published: 30 October 2008
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium frequently encountered in hospitals as a contaminant of injectable material and surfaces. This psychrotrophic bacterium, commonly described as unable to grow at temperatures above 32°C, is now considered non pathogenic. We studied a recently identified clinical strain of P. fluorescens biovar I, MFN1032, which is considered to cause human lung infection and can grow at 37°C in laboratory conditions.
We found that MFN1032 secreted extracellular factors with a lytic potential at least as high as that of MF37, a psychrotrophic strain of P. fluorescens or the mesophilic opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We demonstrated the direct, and indirect – through increases in biosurfactant release – involvement of a phospholipase C in the hemolytic activity of this bacterium. Sequence analysis assigned this phospholipase C to a new group of phospholipases C different from those produced by P. aeruginosa. We show that changes in PlcC production have pleiotropic effects and that plcC overexpression and plcC extinction increase MFN1032 toxicity and colonization, respectively.
This study provides the first demonstration that a PLC is involved in the secreted hemolytic activity of a clinical strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Moreover, this phospholipase C seems to belong to a complex biological network associated with the biosurfactant production.
- Luria Bertani
- Hemolytic Activity
- Opportunistic Pathogen
- Biosurfactant Production
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium frequently encountered in the environment. Naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics and disinfectants, this bacterium is commonly found in hospitals as a contaminant of cleaning solutions and even injectable material . This bacterium is characterized by its very large genome, containing a large number of regulatory genes conferring a very high potential to adapt to environmental variation . P. fluorescens is generally considered psychrotrophic species, but the presence of this bacterium in hospitals has long been demonstrated . The broad clinical spectrum of this bacterium, which may colonize the airways , urinary tract  and blood  of immunocompromised patients and previously healthy patients, demonstrates that human body temperature is not necessarily a barrier to the development of this microorganism. These findings strongly suggest that different strains have evolved to deal with this specific environment . Previous investigations of the infectious potential of P. fluorescens have demonstrated that this bacterium can bind specifically to the cytoplasmic membrane of neurons and glial cells . Attachment to the cytoplasmic membrane of the host cell is associated with the induction of apoptosis and necrosis . LPS has clearly been implicated in cytotoxicity, but other factors released along with LPS during cytoadhesion also seem to be essential for the virulence of this bacterium . The virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia sp. have been studied in detail, but little is known about those of P. fluorescens [11, 12]. P. fluorescens bacteria synthesize and release various extracellular enzymes, including a protease  and a lipase , which may be involved in virulence. They also produce phospholipase C (PLC) [15–19] – an enzyme produced by many bacterial pathogens and associated with various levels of virulence . The pathophysiological role of secreted PLCs depends on bacterial species, extending from that of a major virulence factor to a minor metabolic factor involved in bacterial survival or dissemination only, without cytotoxic effects [21, 22]. However, the effects of PLCs may be more subtle. PLC interferes with eukaryotic cellular signaling cascades and seems to be able to modulate the host immune response . Several members of the Pseudomonas family produce PLCs , and the PLCs synthesized by P. aeruginosa have been studied in detail . The virulence potential of the PLCs of this bacterium has often been associated with hemolytic activity . Conversely, our knowledge about hemolysin production by P. fluorescens remains very limited. The PLCs identified in this species to date have essentially been studied biochemically, without considering their infectious potential.
We studied a recently identified strain of P. fluorescens (MFN1032)  with mesophilic behavior and hemolytic activity, comparing the cytotoxicity of the factors secreted by this clinical strain with those secreted by the environmental P. fluorescens strain MF37. We also included the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa in the study, as a reference. We identified a phospholipase C (PlcC) from MFN1032 and compared its amino-acid sequence with those of the PLCs produced by other P. fluorescens species and other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. We then evaluated the involvement of PlcC in the hemolytic activity of MFN1032, by constructing plcC mutants.
Characterization of the MFN1032 strain
Cytotoxic effects of bacterial culture supernatants
We assessed the cytotoxicity of supernatants from P. fluorescens MFN1032, P. fluorescens MF37 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 in two experimental models: LDH release from rat glial cells and the hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in a liquid assay.
We monitored the levels of secreted hemolytic activity displayed by MFN1032 throughout bacterial growth. MFN1032 grown at 17°C displayed hemolytic activity only at the start of the stationary phase and similar profiles were observed at 8°C and 28°C. The kinetics of hemolysin production by PAO1 was investigated only at 37°C. Hemolytic activity appeared to be stable after 15 bacterial generations in culture, in all the cases. These conditions were therefore adopted in all subsequent studies. Major differences were observed in the hemolytic activities of supernatants from cultures of MFN1032, MF37 and PAO1 grown at 8, 17, 28 and 37°C (Figure 2B). Culture supernatants from MF37 grown at 8, 17 and 28°C were non hemolytic (no test was carried out at 37°C because this strain cannot grow at this temperature). Hemolysis levels for the clinical strain MFN1032 were maximal at growth temperatures of 8 and 17°C (100% and 83% lysis, respectively), and lower at 28°C (26% lysis). MFN1032 supernatants were non hemolytic if the bacteria were cultured at 37°C. MFN1032 and PAO1 supernatants had similar hemolytical potentials if the bacteria were grown at 17°C (90% hemolysis) or 28°C (25% hemolysis) (Figure 2B). The hemolytic activity of PAO1 supernatants was maximal at growth temperatures of 37°C (optimal growth rate) and 17°C. By contrast, the secreted hemolytic activity of the MFN1032 strain was not maximal at the optimal growth rate for this strain (30°C).
As the P. fluorescens clinical strain MFN1032 displayed hemolysis, we investigated the factors potentially involved in this hemolytic activity.
Measurement of protease activity, LPS and biosurfactant release and lecithinase activity in the supernatant
Release of protease, LPS, lecithinase and biosurfactant into LB supernatants after growth at 28°C: (+: detection, -: no detection).
Effect of D609 on the secreted hemolytic activity of MFN1032
Effect of D609 on the secreted hemolytic activities of MFN1032 and PAO1
92 ± 1
30 ± 3
86 ± 1
85 ± 2
Structural characterization of the PLC from MFN1032
Comparison of the sequence of the MFN1032 PlcC with other PLC sequences
PLC (ID Protein number)
% Identity to PlcC
P. fluorescens MFN1032
P. fluorescens (Preuss)
P. fluorescens SBW25
P. fluorescens Pf-5
P. fluorescens Pf0-1
Construction of MFN1032 plcC mutants
Comparison of the secreted hemolytic activities of MFN1032 and the plcC mutants at various growth temperatures
Growth Temperature (°C)
98 ± 1
83 ± 17
26 ± 3
100 ± 2
74 ± 13
2 ± 1
0.5 ± 0.1
0.8 ± 0.2
2 ± 1
0.4 ± 0.1
1 ± 0.2
Pleiotropic effects of plcCgene mutation
Evaluation of biosurfactant release into culture supernatants by the drop-collapse test
Analysis of the flanking regions of plcC
P. fluorescens is generally considered to be non pathogenic, but its infectious potential has nonetheless been demonstrated. In vitro studies of environmental strains, including P. fluorescens MF37, have shown that this psychrotrophic bacterium has most of the features of an opportunistic pathogen . P. fluorescens is a highly heterogeneous species, ranging from avirulent strains that can be used in crop protection  to clinical strains involved in lung, urinary tract and blood infections. However, whereas the low virulence of industrial strains has been studied in detail, the factors involved in the virulence of clinical forms of P. fluorescens, including MFN1032, have not previously been investigated. Virulence results from the combined effects of direct contact between the bacterium and the target cell and the production of many soluble or secreted molecules and exotoxins acting at some distance from the microorganism. MFN1032 has been shown to be highly cytotoxic in vitro to eukaryotic cells, to which it binds . We investigated the role of factors secreted by this bacterium in cytotoxicity. We therefore carried out experiments with supernatants and culture medium extracts only.
In addition to its ability to multiply at 37°C, which is itself unusual for a strain of P. fluorescens, MFN1032 generated molecules with high levels of hemolytic and cytotoxic activity, as observed in in vitro models. The hemolytic activity of MFN1032 supernatants was similar to that of P. aeruginosa, which is an opportunistic pathogen. By contrast, a typical psychrotrophic strain, MF37, displayed no hemolytic activity under the same conditions. More surprisingly, MFN1032 supernatants were significantly more cytotoxic to rat glial cells than PAO1 supernatants, for bacteria grown at 17°C and 28°C. The secreted hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of P. fluorescens MFN1032 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 appeared to be temperature-dependent, as was P. fluorescens MF37 cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, the supernatant of MFN1032 grown at 37°C displayed no hemolysis. At first glance, this finding appears to contradict the hypothesis that hemolysis is a virulence factor. Low temperature induction likely reflects the evolutionary history of the factors involved in this activity and the function of those elements in non-infective conditions. In fact, it has been described that Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical and non-clinical environments are genetically and functionally similar [29, 30]. So evolution of virulence determinants in opportunistic pathogens is not necessary linked to their interaction with the human host. Finally, invasin and the heat-stable enterotoxin Yst from Y. enterocolitica are also virulence factors produced preferentially at temperatures below 37°C in vitro. However, in conditions of slight acidity or high osmolarity, these virulence genes are expressed at 37°C in vitro. High-temperature repression may therefore be overcome by other conditions stimulating expression in the host.
We found that neither protease nor LPS was responsible for the extracellular hemolytic activity of MFN1032. The absence of protease activity in these conditions was not surprising, as protease activity has been recovered from P. aeruginosa PAO1 only after at least 18 h of growth in LB medium and has never been observed with P. fluorescens MF0 in this medium . Many pathogens display secreted hemolytic activity, which may be due to toxins, biosurfactants, and/or enzymes (essentially PLCs) . Various species of Pseudomonas have been reported to produce hemolytic and/or non hemolytic PLCs [16, 21, 32]. The observed degradation of lecithin by MF37 on plates or in supernatants is consistent with this bacterium producing a non hemolytic PLC other than PlcC, as no gene amplification was observed with plcC primers. By contrast, the PLC produced by MFN1032 is involved in the hemolytic activity of this strain, as shown by the inhibitory effect of D609.
A protein with lecithinase activity was identified in MFN1032 supernatants by an egg-yolk agar plate zymogram method. This enzyme has a molecular mass of 42 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE. This apparent molecular mass is similar to that of previously described P. fluorescens PLC enzymes [15, 16, 18] and those of the putative PlcB  and PlcA produced by P. aeruginosa (Vasil et al., data communicated at the Pseudomonas Congress, 2005). The PlcH and PlcN produced by P. aeruginosa have a higher molecular mass .
Analysis of the sequence of the plcC gene indicated considerable similarity between PlcC and putative PLCs identified in various strains of P. fluorescens including, in particular, the PLC produced by a P. fluorescens isolated from placental extract  and the putative PLC from SBW25. This plcC gene was shorter than those predicted for Pf0-1 and Pf5, and the main difference between the protein encoded by this gene and Pf0-1 and Pf5 concerned the N-terminus of the protein. It is unclear whether plc genes are expressed in the other strains and it is possible that PLC production is not specific to adaptation to human infection but was acquired to survive in other environments.
No significant sequence similarity was found between the group of PLCs described here and the well characterized zinc-metallophospholipases C of Gram-positive bacteria. This group of PLCs is also only very distantly related to the enzymes described by Stonehouse et al., including the PlcH and PlcN of P. aeruginosa . The differences between these enzymes concern not only their sequences, but also their catalytic sites, as D609 has no effect on PlcH activity . The PlcC from MFN1032 also appears to be different from PAO1 PlcB and PlcA . Thus, although P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa are generally thought to be closely related, they have different PLCs. Preuss et al. reported an elegant, detailed biochemical characterization of their PLC. Their data concerning iron requirement and D609 susceptibility suggested the existence of a new class of PLCs, to which MFN1032 PlcC might belong.
Neither PlcC nor the PLC studied by Preuss et al. has a signal peptide. These enzymes are therefore presumably secreted by an unknown mechanism, whereas most PLCs are secreted by the Tat or Sec pathways [33–35]. Several phospholipases have been reported to belong to the flagellar regulon  and to be secreted by the flagellar export apparatus [37, 38], a type-three secretion system , or by the two-partner secretion (TPS) system . For example, the transcription and secretion of YplA, the phospholipase A1 of Yersinia enterocolitica, are controlled by the flagellar regulon . Warren et al. suggested that an amino-terminal secretion signal of about 20 amino acids is required for YplA secretion, but did not identify a particular signal peptide motif . Some PLCs have been shown to be regulated by the flagellar regulon, but no evidence has ever been published to suggest that PLCs may affect the expression of this regulon. There is no evidence to suggest that the PlcC of MFN1032 is secreted by the flagellar apparatus, but the lower levels of flagellin in the supernatant of the plcC-deficient mutant than in the supernatant of the control or complemented strain implies a close link between these two proteins. This hypothesis is supported by in silico analysis, which identified a cluster of orthologous groups (COG) corresponding to a flagellar hook motif in PlcC. It should be noted that the lower levels of flagellin do not indicate the lack of flagella. The mutant displayed swimming motility and TEM observations of MFN1037 cells confirmed that flagella were present.
We constructed a plcC-overexpressing mutant of MFN1032, MFN1036, to investigate the involvement of PlcC in hemolytic activity and we found that a higher level of PlcC production by MFN1032 was associated with higher levels of hemolytic activity. The loss of hemolytic activity in the plcC-deficient strain MFN1037 confirmed the involvement of this enzyme in hemolysis. Hemolytic activity was not restored in the MFN1038 strain, which overexpressed plcC, and extinction of the plcC gene had also pleiotropic effects, particularly as concerns the release of biosurfactant and flagellin. This was not due to a polar mutation involving plcC gene interruption, as the plcC gene was not associated with any other gene in an operon in the MFN1032 genome. Linares et al. described that the presence of low antibiotics concentrations in the culture media may induce changes in bacterial physiology (biofilm, motility and cytotoxicity) . Their data could explain the phenotype change of the plcC mutant MFN1037, but we were not in conditions used by these authors (i.e subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics). We probably disturb a complex regulatory network in MFN1037, and this hypothesis is also supported by plcC overexpression in MFN1036 resulting in the overproduction of biosurfactants, increasing swarming mobility.
Such complex regulatory systems often involve positive and/or negative feedback loops . GntR regulators have been reported to maintain their own expression , so a positive feedback loop regulating GntR levels may exist. As previously reported, a simple change affecting a key element of this kind of system might lead to epigenetic modification . Epigenetic switches, corresponding to phenotype modifications, arise and may be transmitted from a cell to its progeny in the absence of genetic modifications. This type of regulation has been reported for the cytotoxicity associated with the T3SS (type-three secretion system) of P. aeruginosa. Transient expression of the ExsA transcriptional regulator in non inducible strains leads to the acquisition of a cytotoxic phenotype . The artificial extinction of plcC in MFN1037 may have triggered such an epigenetic switch.
These findings demonstrate that some P. fluorescens strains have some of the key characteristics of opportunistic pathogens. We provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of the involvement of a PLC in the secreted hemolytic activity of a clinical strain of P. fluorescens (MFN1032). We found that MFN1032 secretes a phospholipase C homologous to a PLC from an uncharacterized P. fluorescens strain previously studied biochemically by Preuss. This enzyme belongs to a new group unrelated to the PLCs produced by P. aeruginosa and seems to be produced by a wide range of P. fluorescens strains, although no homolog of the plcC gene was found in our model strain, MF37. Further studies including strains of different origins presenting hemolytic activity would clarify these observations. However, although PlcC is not specific to clinical isolates, this enzyme is a potential virulence factor as our data show that this enzyme is directly involved in the secreted hemolytic activity of MFN1032, as demonstrated by the inhibitory effect of D609. The direct involvement of PlcC in MFN1032 virulence could be further demonstrated or excluded by studying in vivo models.
Results obtained with the plcC mutants also suggest that this enzyme interferes with biosurfactant production, which might also account for the higher levels of hemolysis observed when plcC was overexpressed. The pleiotropic phenotype resulting from plcC mutation or overexpression suggests that PlcC is involved in a regulatory network. We are now investigating a possible role for the 3' flanking region of plcC, corresponding to the putative transcriptional regulator GntR, with the aim of determining the link between PlcC, GntR and biosurfactant production.
Bacterial strains and culture conditions
The MFN1032 strain was collected from a patient suffering from pulmonary tract infection (expectoration) at a hospital in Haute Normandie. This strain was the only bacterial contaminant in a normally sterile compartment and was considered to be the cause of the infection. MFN1032 was identified as a P. fluorescens biovar I strain . PAO1 is a P. aeruginosa strain widely used in laboratory studies . MF37 is a spontaneously rifampicin-resistant mutant of the MF0 strain, a psychrotrophic strain of P. fluorescens isolated from unpasteurized milk extensively studied in our laboratory . These bacteria were cultured in Luria Bertani medium (LB), at various temperatures between 8 and 37°C, with shaking at 180 rpm. When necessary, 500 μg/mL mezlocillin or 40 μg/mL tetracycline was added. Bacterial density was determined by measuring optical density at 580 nm (Spectronic 601 spectrophotometer).
Glial cell cytotoxicity assays
Cytotoxicity was assessed by quantifying lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the medium by cells, as this release reflects levels of necrosis. Concentrated supernatants (10 μL/mL culture medium) from bacterial cultures at various temperatures were incubated overnight with rat glial cells (8 × 106 cells/mL) that had been cultured in vitro for 12 days. Controls included LB concentrated with Amicon Ultra-15 centrifugal filter units and incubated for the same period of time in culture medium for glial cells. The Cytotox 96® enzymatic assay (Promega, France) was used to quantify necrosis by measuring LDH release into the culture medium. The percentage total lysis was calculated as follows: % = [(X-B)/(T-B)] × 100, where B (baseline) is a control corresponding to LDH spontaneously produced by glial cells incubated with concentrated LB (10 μL/mL culture medium), T is a positive control (100%) corresponding to the amount of LDH detected in the culture medium after total lysis of the cell population by Triton X-100 (9% (v/v) in water) treatment and X is the amount of LDH detected in the culture medium of the sample tested. The assay was sensitive enough to measure LDH concentrations equivalent to the lysis of 1% of the cell population.
The hemolytic potentials of bacterial culture supernatants were measured by a technique derived from that described by Dacheux et al. . Briefly, sheep erythrocytes obtained from Eurobio (France) were washed three times in PBS (pH 7.2, 0.8% NaCl, 0.02% KCl, 0.17% Na2HPO4, 0.8% KH2PO4) and resuspended in RPMI-1640 medium (Sigma) to a final concentration of 2% (cell volume/medium volume). Bacteria were grown in LB, and the enzymatic activity of the culture supernatant was assessed. Samples were obtained from bacteria cultured at various temperatures (8, 17, 28 or 37°C) for 15 generations. The bacterial cultures were centrifuged and the supernatants collected and sterilized by passage through a Millipore filter with 0.22 μm pores. For hemolysis assays, we combined 600 μL of a 2% suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) with 600 μL of filtered supernatant and incubated this mixture for 2 h at 37°C. The suspension was centrifuged at 10,000 g for 8 min at 4°C, and hemoglobin release was assessed by determining absorbance at 540 nm. The percentage (%) of cells lysed was calculated as follows: % = [(X-B)/(T-B)] × 100. B (baseline) is a negative control corresponding to RBCs incubated with 600 μL sterile LB and T is a positive control corresponding to the total lysis obtained by incubating RBCs in LB supplemented with 0.1% SDS (final concentration). X is the absorbance value for the sample analyzed. All experiments were performed at least three times in triplicate. D609 was obtained from Sigma and used at a final concentration of 1 mM.
Protease and LPS assays
Protease assays were carried out with supernatants from bacteria cultured for 15 generations, as described by Hellio et al. . LPS levels were quantified by determining 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulonic acid (KDO) concentration, as described by Karkhanis et al..
Biosurfactant production was assessed by the drop-collapse test mainly as described previously . Drops of Volvic water were dispensed into a Petri dish with a polystyrene platform. Drops of culture supernatant were added to the drops of water. If the culture broth contained biosurfactant, the droplets of water collapsed.
Gel electrophoresis conditions, zymogram methods and amino-acid sequencing
Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out as described by Laemmli . For a zymogram on egg-yolk agar, a silver-stained SDS-PAGE gel was washed three times in water and placed directly on an egg-yolk agar plate. After overnight incubation at 37°C, lecithinase activity was detected as an opaque band corresponding to lecithin hydrolysis. For N-terminal amino-acid sequencing, the supernatant proteins were transferred to PVDF membranes and subjected to Edman degradation in an Applied Biosytems 492 automated protein sequencer.
Motility assays were performed as described , with light modifications. Each strain was incubated on LB agar plates for 24 h at 28°C. Plates of LB medium solidified with 0.3% agar (for the assessment of swimming motility) were inoculated by stabbing colonies with a toothpick and inserting the end of the toothpick just below the surface of the agar. Three colonies were picked from three plates and incubated at 28°C until a migration halo appeared. We then spotted 5 μL of 3 independent suspensions of each strain onto LB medium plus 0.6% agar (swarming motility) and the plates were incubated until a migration halo appeared.
Static biofilm assay and quantification
Biofilm assay was adapted from the method of O'Toole and Kolter . Bacteria were plated on LB agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 28°C. Three independent LB suspensions of each strain were adjusted to an OD580 of 0.4. We added 100 μL aliquots of each suspension to the wells of 96-well microtiter plates, at least in triplicate. The negative control consisted of LB broth without bacteria. Plates were incubated for 24 h at 37°C without shaking. The bacterial cells bound to the wall of the wells were then stained with 0.1% crystal violet and the remaining crystal violet was then quantified by treatment with 150 μL of 1% SDS and the determination of absorbance at 595 nm with a microtiter plate reader (Model 680XR, Biorad).
Early exponential growth phase bacteria were fixed by incubation in an equal volume of modified Karnofsky buffer (2.5% glutaraldehyde, 1% paraformaldehyde in 0.15 M sodium cacodylate buffer) at least 10 minutes and washed in phosphate buffer (0.1 M; pH 8). Nickel-coated copper grids (200 mesh) were floated on a drop of washed bacteria, rinsed in ultrapure grade water, and negatively stained with 0.5% (wt/vol) phosphotungstic acid (5 to 10 s). Electron microscopy was performed with a Philips CM10 transmission electron microscope.
Oligonucleotides and polymerase chain reactions
Five colonies of each strain were suspended in 600 μL sterile ultrapure water. The suspension (1 μL) was then used for PCR with template DNA from bacterial colonies. PCR was carried out in a 50 μL reaction volume, in a GeneAmp PCR system 2400 (Perkin-Elmer Corporation, USA). Each reaction mixture contained DNA template, 1.25 μL Taq polymerase (GMP grade, Roche Diagnostics Gmbh, Germany),Taq PCR buffer (GMP grade, Roche Diagnostics Gmbh, Germany), 0.2 μL primers and 125 μM of each deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate. After initial denaturation for five minutes at 94°C, the reaction mixture was subjected to 30 cycles of 1 minute at 94°C, 30 s at 54°C and 1.5 minutes at 72°C, followed by a final 7-minute extension at 72°C. The primers used for PCR were purchased from Proligo (France). The complete plcC gene sequence (approximately 1.2 kb) was amplified with PLC1 (5'-ATGTCAGGTCTTGAACTCGCA-3') and PLC2 (5'-TTAGTTGGCGGGTTGGTTT-3'). The use of PLC0 (5'-GGTGGAAATCACCCTGG-3') with PLC2 amplified the plcC gene and its promoter (approximately 1.5 kb). GntR (5'-CCGAGTCGGCGATCATG-3') was used with PLC (5'-GCAAGGACGTCAACGATTTG-3') to amplify the 3' flanking region of plcC.
Sequence determination and analysis
The 1.2 kb or 1.5 kb PCR fragment was isolated with a DNA gel extraction kit (Genomics/Millipore) and cloned with the pMOSBlue Blunt-ended Cloning Kit (Amersham/Biosciences). MOS cells were transformed and, after blue/white colony screening, clones were picked and plasmid DNA was isolated with the QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit (Qiagen). Plasmids were checked by digestion with HindIII/AvaI and sequenced by Genome Express (France). The predicted protein sequence of MFN1032 PlcC was for BLAST queries http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/.
Construction of a plcC-overexpressing MFN1032 clone: MFN1036
The 1.5 kb PCR fragment was inserted into the pMOSBlue vector. The 1.5 kb AvaI/HindIII fragment was then transferred to the pUCP2O shuttle vector to construct pMF36 . MFN1032 was electroporated with pMF36. Positive colonies were selected based on mezlocillin resistance and lecithin degradation on an egg-yolk agar plate. Clones were checked by plasmid DNA isolation with the QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit (Qiagen), followed by enzymatic digestion. The strain obtained, MFN1036, was cultured in LB with a final concentration of 500 μg/mL mezlocillin.
Construction of a plcC-negative mutant, MFN1037, and the complemented MFN1038 strain
EcoRI/HindIII digestion of the 1.2 kb PCR fragment generated a 1 kb fragment corresponding to a 3'-deleted plcC gene. This fragment was inserted into the transferable suicide plasmid pME3087 , creating pMF1034 in Escherichia coli DH5αMCR cells. Plasmids were isolated with the QIAprep Spin Miniprep Kit (Qiagen), checked by digestion with HindIII/EcoRI and transferred into the E. coli S17.1 conjugative strain . MFN1032 cells were conjugated with the S17.1 pMF1034 strain and selected for resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin. Clones were tested by PCR with PLC0 and PLC2 probes to confirm disruption of the plcC gene. MFN1037 (plcC-deficient MFN1032) had no1.5 kb fragment corresponding to the plcC gene under the control of its own promoter. This strain also had an attenuated egg-yolk degradation phenotype. It was cultured in LB with a final concentration of 40 μg/mL tetracycline. Complementation of the mutation was obtained by electroporating MFN1037 with pMF36 (strain MFN1038). Clones were selected for resistance to mezlocillin and tetracycline and egg-yolk degradation phenotype, and were checked by plasmid DNA isolation with the QIAprep Spin miniprep Kit (Qiagen), followed by enzymatic digestion.
This work was supported by the Région Haute-Normandie.
- Whyte A, Lafong C, Malone J, Golda B: Contaminated lithium heparin bottles as a source of pseudobacteremia. J Hosp Infect. 1999, 42: 342-343. 10.1053/jhin.1999.0601.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spiers AJ, Buckling A, Rainey PB: The causes of Pseudomonas diversity. Microbiology. 2000, 146: 2345-2350.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Von Graevenitz A: Clinical microbiology on unsual Pseudomonas species. Progress in Clinical Pathology. 1973, 5: 185-218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bernstein DI, Lummus ZL, Santilli G, Siskosky J, Bernstein IL: Machine operator's lung. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis disorder associated with exposure to metalworking fluid aerosols. Chest. 1995, 108 (3): 636-641. 10.1378/chest.108.3.636.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaushal ML, Grover PS, Gupta ML: Non-fermenters in urinary tract infection. J Assoc Physicians India. 1998, 46 (9): 798-800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsueh P, Teng L, Pan H, Chen Y, Sun C, Ho S, Luh K: Outbreak of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteremia among oncology patients. J Clin Microbiol. 1998, 36: 2914-2917.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chapalain A, Rossignol G, Lesouhaitier O, Merieau A, Gruffaz C, Guerillon J, Meyer JM, Orange N, Feuilloley MGJ: Comparative study of seven fluorescent pseudomonad clinical isolates. Can J Microbiol. 2008, 54 (1): 19-27. 10.1139/W07-110.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Picot L, Abdelmoula SM, Merieau A, Leroux P, Cazin L, Orange N, Feuilloley MG: Pseudomonas fluorescens as a potential pathogen: adherence to nerve cells. Microbes Infect. 2001, 3 (12): 985-995. 10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01462-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feuilloley MGJ, Mezghani-Abdelmoula S, Picot L, Lesouhaitier O, Merieau A, Guerillon J, Orange N: Involvement of Pseudomonas and related species in central nervous system infections. Recent Adv Dev Microbiol. 2003, 7: 55-71.Google Scholar
- Picot L, Mezghani-Abdelmoula S, Chevalier S, Merieau A, Lesouhaitier O, Guerillon J, Cazin L, Orange N, Feuilloley MG: Regulation of the cytotoxic effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens by growth temperature. Res Microbiol. 2004, 155 (1): 39-46. 10.1016/j.resmic.2003.09.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lazdunski A: Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a model of choice for the study of opportunistic pathogen. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2003, 22: 523-526.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohr CD, Tomich M, Herfst CA: Cellular aspects of Burkholderia cepacia infection. Microbes Infect. 2001, 3 (5): 425-435. 10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01389-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hellio FC, Orange N, Guespin-Michel JF: Growth temperature controls the production of a single extracellular protease by Pseudomonas fluorescens MF0, in the presence of various inducers. Res Microbiol. 1993, 144 (8): 617-625. 10.1016/0923-2508(93)90064-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dieckelmann M, Johnson LA, Beacham IR: The diversity of lipases from psychrotrophic strains of Pseudomonas: a novel lipase from a highly lipolytic strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. J Appl Microbiol. 1998, 85 (3): 527-536. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1998.853530.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Preuss I, Kaiser I, Gehring U: Molecular characterization of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C. Eur J Biochem. 2001, 268 (19): 5081-5091. 10.1046/j.0014-2956.2001.02440.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ivanov A, Titball RW, Kostadinova S: Characterisation of a phospholipase C produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. New Microbiol. 1996, 19 (2): 113-121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sacherer P, Defago G, Haas D: Extracellular protease and phospholipase C are controlled by the global regulatory gene gac A in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994, 116 (2): 155-160. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb06694.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crevel I, U S, Carne A, Katan M: Purification and properties of zinc-metallophospholipase C from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Eur J Biochem. 1994, 224 (3): 845-852. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1994.00845.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Doi O, Nojima S: Phospholipase C from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971, 248 (2): 234-244.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Songer JG: Bacterial phospholipases and their role in virulence. Trends Microbiol. 1997, 5 (4): 156-161. 10.1016/S0966-842X(97)01005-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Titball RW: Bacterial phospholipases C. Microbiol Rev. 1993, 57 (2): 347-366.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmiel DH, Miller VL: Bacterial phospholipases and pathogenesis. Microbes Infect. 1999, 1 (13): 1103-1112. 10.1016/S1286-4579(99)00205-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ostroff RM, Vasil AI, Vasil ML: Molecular comparison of a nonhemolytic and a hemolytic phospholipase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 1990, 172 (10): 5915-5923.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Montes L-R, Ibarguren M, Goni FM, Stonehouse MJ, Vasil MI, Alonso A: Leakage-free membrane fusion induced by the hydrolytic activity of PlcHR2, a novel phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007, 1768: 2354-2372.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amtmann E: The antiviral, antitumoural xanthate D609 is a competitive inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1996, 22 (6): 287-294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stonehouse MJ, Cota-Gomez A, Parker SK, Martin WE, Hankin JA, Murphy RC, Chen W, Lim KB, Hackett M, Vasil AI, et al: A novel class of microbial phosphocholine-specific phospholipases C. Mol Microbiol. 2002, 46 (3): 661-676. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03194.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rigali S, Derouaux A, Giannotta F, Dusart J: Subdivision of the helix-turn-helix GntR family of bacterial regulators in the FadR, HutC, MocR, and YtrA subfamilies. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277 (15): 12507-12515. 10.1074/jbc.M110968200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Compant S, Brion D, Jerzy N, Christophe C, Barka EA: Use of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria for Biocontrol of Plant Diseases: Principles, Mechanisms of Action, and Future Prospects. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2005, 71: 4951-4959. 10.1128/AEM.71.9.4951-4959.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alonso A, Rojo F, Martinez JL: Environmental and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa show pathogenic and biodegradative properties irrespective of their origin. Environ Microbiol. 1999, 1 (5): 421-430. 10.1046/j.1462-2920.1999.00052.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morales G, Wiehlmann L, Gudowius P, van Delden C, Tummler B, Martinez JL, Rojo F: Structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphism and pulse-field gel electrophoresis genotyping. J Bacteriol. 2004, 186 (13): 4228-4237. 10.1128/JB.186.13.4228-4237.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alouf J: Les toxines bactériennes membranolytiques. Bull Soc Fr Microbiol. 2000, 15 (2): 104-110.Google Scholar
- Sonoki S, Ikezawa H: Studies on phospholipase C from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. I. Purification and some properties of phospholipase C. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975, 403 (2): 412-424.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barker AP, Vasil AI, Filloux A, Ball G, Wilderman PJ, Vasil ML: A novel extracellular phospholipase C of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for phospholipid chemotaxis. Mol Microbiol. 2004, 53 (4): 1089-1098. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2004.04189.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Voulhoux R, Ball G, Ize B, Vasil ML, Lazdunski A, Wu LF, Filloux A: Involvement of the twin-arginine translocation system in protein secretion via the type II pathway. Embo J. 2001, 20 (23): 6735-6741. 10.1093/emboj/20.23.6735.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rossier O, Cianciotto NP: The Legionella pneumophila tatB gene facilitates secretion of phospholipase C, growth under iron-limiting conditions, and intracellular infection. Infect Immun. 2005, 73 (4): 2020-2032. 10.1128/IAI.73.4.2020-2032.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Givskov M, Eberl L, Christiansen G, Benedik MJ, Molin S: Induction of phospholipase- and flagellar synthesis in Serratia liquefaciens is controlled by expression of the flagellar master operon flhD. Mol Microbiol. 1995, 15 (3): 445-454. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1995.tb02258.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmiel DH, Young GM, Miller VL: The Yersinia enterocolitica phospholipase gene yplA is part of the flagellar regulon. J Bacteriol. 2000, 182 (8): 2314-2320. 10.1128/JB.182.8.2314-2320.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young GM, Schmiel DH, Miller VL: A new pathway for the secretion of virulence factors by bacteria: the flagellar export apparatus functions as a protein-secretion system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999, 96 (11): 6456-6461. 10.1073/pnas.96.11.6456.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young BM, Young GM: YplA is exported by the Ysc, Ysa, and flagellar type III secretion systems of Yersinia enterocolitica. J Bacteriol. 2002, 184 (5): 1324-1334.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jacob-Dubuisson F, Fernandez R, Coutte L: Protein secretion through autotransporter and two-partner pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004, 1694 (1–3): 235-257.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Warren SM, Young GM: An amino-terminal secretion signal is required for YplA export by the Ysa, Ysc, and flagellar type III secretion systems of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B. J Bacteriol. 2005, 187 (17): 6075-6083. 10.1128/JB.187.17.6075-6083.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Linares JF, Gustafsson I, Baquero F, Martinez JL: Antibiotics as intermicrobial signaling agents instead of weapons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103 (51): 19484-19489. 10.1073/pnas.0608949103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaufman M, Thomas R: Emergence of complex behaviour from simple circuit structures. C R Biol. 2003, 326 (2): 205-214. 10.1016/S1631-0691(03)00063-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rigali S, Schlicht M, Hoskisson P, Nothaft H, Merzbacher M, Joris B, Titgemeyer F: Extending the classification of bacterial transcription factors beyond the helix-turn-helix motif as an alternative approach to discover new cis/trans relationships. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004, 32 (11): 3418-3426. 10.1093/nar/gkh673.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guespin-Michel JF, Polack B, Merieau A: Bacterial adaptation and epigenesis. Recent research and Developments in Microbiology. 2003, 7: 289-305.Google Scholar
- Filopon D, Merieau A, Bernot G, Comet JP, Leberre R, Guery B, Polack B, Guespin-Michel J: Epigenetic acquisition of inducibility of type III cytotoxicity in P. aeruginosa. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006, 7: 272-10.1186/1471-2105-7-272.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holloway BW, Krishnapillai V, Morgan AF: Chromosomal genetics of Pseudomonas. Microbiol Rev. 1979, 43: 73-102.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burini JF, Gugi B, Merieau A, Guespin-Michel JF: Lipase and acidic phosphatase from the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens: two enzymes whose synthesis is regulated by the growth temperature. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994, 122 (1–2): 13-18. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb07136.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dacheux D, Attree I, Toussaint B: Expression of ExsA in trans confers type III secretion system-dependent cytotoxicity on noncytotoxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates. Infect Immun. 2001, 69 (1): 538-542. 10.1128/IAI.69.1.538-542.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karkhanis YD, Zeltner JY, Jackson JJ, Carlo DJ: A new and improved microassay to determine 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate in lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria. Anal Biochem. 1978, 85 (2): 595-601. 10.1016/0003-2697(78)90260-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Youssef NH, Duncan KE, Nagle DP, Savage KN, Knapp RM, McInerney MJ: Comparison of methods to detect biosurfactant production by diverse microorganisms. J Microbiol Methods. 2004, 56 (3): 339-347. 10.1016/j.mimet.2003.11.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laemmli UK, Molbert E, Showe M, Kellenberger E: Form-determining function of the genes required for the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. J Mol Biol. 1970, 49 (1): 99-113. 10.1016/0022-2836(70)90379-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deziel E, Comeau Y, Villemur R: Initiation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 57RP correlates with emergence of hyperpiliated and highly adherent phenotypic variants deficient in swimming, swarming, and twitching motilities. J Bacteriol. 2001, 183 (4): 1195-1204. 10.1128/JB.183.4.1195-1204.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Toole GA, Kolter R: Initiation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 proceeds via multiple, convergent signalling pathways: a genetic analysis. Mol Microbiol. 1998, 28 (3): 449-461. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.00797.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- West SE, Schweizer HP, Dall C, Sample AK, Runyen-Janecky LJ: Construction of improved Escherichia-Pseudomonas shuttle vectors derived from pUC18/19 and sequence of the region required for their replication in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gene. 1994, 148 (1): 81-86. 10.1016/0378-1119(94)90237-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schnider U, Keel C, Voisard C, Defago G, Haas D: Tn5-directed cloning of pqq genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0: mutational inactivation of the genes results in overproduction of the antibiotic pyoluteorin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995, 61 (11): 3856-3864.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simon RPU, Pehle A: A broad host range mobilization system for in vitro genetic engineering: transposon mutagenesis in Gram-negative bacteria. biotechology. 1983, 1: 784-790. 10.1038/nbt1183-784.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.