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  1. The kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) of trypanosomatids consists of an unusual arrangement of circular molecules catenated into a single network. The diameter of the isolated kDNA network is similar to that of the entir...

    Authors: Danielle Pereira Cavalcanti, Márcia Kiyoe Shimada, Christian Macagnan Probst, Thais Cristina Baeta Soares Souto-Padrón, Wanderley de Souza, Samuel Goldenberg, Stênio Perdigão Fragoso and Maria Cristina Machado Motta
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:120
  2. The original anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway proposed by Goldfine and Bloch was based on in vivo labeling studies in Clostridium butyricum ATCC 6015 (now C. beijerinckii) but to date no dedi...

    Authors: Lei Zhu, Juanli Cheng, Biao Luo, Saixiang Feng, Jinshui Lin, Shengbin Wang, John E Cronan and Haihong Wang
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:119
  3. Though RpoS is important for survival of pathogenic Escherichia coli in natural environments, polymorphism in the rpoS gene is common. However, the causes of this polymorphism and consequential physiological effe...

    Authors: Tao Dong, Sarah M Chiang, Charlie Joyce, Rosemary Yu and Herb E Schellhorn
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:118
  4. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a prominent cause of diarrhoea, and is characterised in part by its carriage of a pathogenicity island: the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). EPEC is divided into two subty...

    Authors: Sharon M Tennant, Marija Tauschek, Kristy Azzopardi, Andrea Bigham, Vicki Bennett-Wood, Elizabeth L Hartland, Weihong Qi, Thomas S Whittam and Roy M Robins-Browne
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:117
  5. Despite their antimicrobial potential, vaginal lactobacilli often fail to retain dominance, resulting in overgrowth of the vagina by other bacteria, as observed with bacterial vaginosis. It remains elusive how...

    Authors: Hans Verstraelen, Rita Verhelst, Geert Claeys, Ellen De Backer, Marleen Temmerman and Mario Vaneechoutte
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:116
  6. The number of scarlet fever occurrences reported between 2000 and 2006 fluctuated considerably in central Taiwan and throughout the nation. Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were collected from scarlet fever pat...

    Authors: Chien-Shun Chiou, You-Wun Wang, Pei-Ling Chen, Wan-Ling Wang, Ping-Fuai Wu and Hsiao-Lun Wei
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:115
  7. The Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system serves to translocate folded proteins, including periplasmic enzymes that bind redox cofactors in bacteria. The Tat system is also a determinant of virulence in som...

    Authors: Lijuan Zhang, Zhaoqin Zhu, Huaiqi Jing, Jingyun Zhang, Yanwen Xiong, Meiying Yan, Shouyi Gao, Long-Fei Wu, Jianguo Xu and Biao Kan
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:114
  8. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which causes a wide range of hospital and community-acquired infections worldwide. Conventional testing for dete...

    Authors: Hassanain Al-Talib, Chan Yean Yean, Alyaa Al-Khateeb, Habsah Hassan, Kirnpal-Kaur Banga Singh, Karim Al-Jashamy and Manickam Ravichandran
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:113
  9. Secondary metabolism in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (Serratia 39006) is controlled via a complex network of regulators, including a LuxIR-type (SmaIR) quorum sensing (QS) system. Here we investigate the molecular mec...

    Authors: Tamzin Gristwood, Peter C Fineran, Lee Everson, Neil R Williamson and George P Salmond
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:112
  10. Three percent of the world's population is chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and thus at risk of developing liver cancer. Although precise mechanisms regulating HCV entry into hepatic cells are...

    Authors: Vera Rocha-Perugini, Muriel Lavie, David Delgrange, Jonathan Canton, André Pillez, Julie Potel, Cécile Lecoeur, Eric Rubinstein, Jean Dubuisson, Czeslaw Wychowski and Laurence Cocquerel
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:111
  11. The expression of Type III secretion system (TTSS) in Shigella is regulated in response to changes in environmental osmolarity and temperature. Temperature-dependent regulation of virF, the master regulator of TT...

    Authors: Jiro Mitobe, Tomoko Morita-Ishihara, Akira Ishihama and Haruo Watanabe
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:110
  12. The genome sequence of Geobacter metallireducens is the second to be completed from the metal-respiring genus Geobacter, and is compared in this report to that of Geobacter sulfurreducens in order to understand t...

    Authors: Muktak Aklujkar, Julia Krushkal, Genevieve DiBartolo, Alla Lapidus, Miriam L Land and Derek R Lovley
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:109
  13. The oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has been shown to modulate apoptosis in different cell types, but its effect on epithelial cells remains unclear.

    Authors: Panagiota G Stathopoulou, Johnah C Galicia, Manjunatha R Benakanakere, Carlos A Garcia, Jan Potempa and Denis F Kinane
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:107
  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms is performed by either disc diffusion or broth dilution tests. In clinical use, the tests are often still performed manually although automated systems ex...

    Authors: Ueli von Ah, Dieter Wirz and AU Daniels
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:106
  15. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, expresses a number of virulence factors, including long (FimA) and short (Mfa) fimbriae as well as gingipains comprised of arginine-specific (Rgp) and lysine-spec...

    Authors: Masae Kuboniwa, Atsuo Amano, Ei Hashino, Yumiko Yamamoto, Hiroaki Inaba, Nobushiro Hamada, Koji Nakayama, Gena D Tribble, Richard J Lamont and Satoshi Shizukuishi
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:105
  16. Penicillium chrysogenum converts isopenicillin N (IPN) into hydrophobic penicillins by means of the peroxisomal IPN acyltransferase (IAT), which is encoded by the penDE gene. In silico analysis of the P. chrysoge...

    Authors: Carlos García-Estrada, Inmaculada Vaca, Ricardo V Ullán, Marco A van den Berg, Roel AL Bovenberg and Juan Francisco Martín
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:104
  17. Microbial biofilms represent an incompletely understood, but fundamental mode of bacterial growth. These sessile communities typically consist of stratified, morphologically-distinct layers of extracellular ma...

    Authors: Marc M Baum, Aleksandra Kainović, Teresa O'Keeffe, Ragini Pandita, Kent McDonald, Siva Wu and Paul Webster
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:103
  18. The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of ...

    Authors: Steven Weyers, Hans Verstraelen, Jan Gerris, Stan Monstrey, Guido dos Santos Lopes Santiago, Bart Saerens, Ellen De Backer, Geert Claeys, Mario Vaneechoutte and Rita Verhelst
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:102
  19. Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus, the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, a lymphocutaneous disease that can remain localized or can disseminate, involving joints, lungs, and the central ner...

    Authors: Shirley Valentín-Berríos, Waleska González-Velázquez, Lizaida Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo González-Méndez and Nuri Rodríguez-del Valle
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:100
  20. Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a rickettsial agent responsible for an emerging tick-borne illness, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Recently, we reported that E. chaffeensis protein expression is influenced by macrophage ...

    Authors: Lalitha Peddireddi, Chuanmin Cheng and Roman R Ganta
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:99
  21. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen that resides in a complex multispecies microbial biofilm community known as dental plaque. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that P. gingivalis can assem...

    Authors: Masae Kuboniwa, Erik L Hendrickson, Qiangwei Xia, Tiansong Wang, Hua Xie, Murray Hackett and Richard J Lamont
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:98
  22. A fast and simple two-step multiplex real-time PCR assay has been developed to replace the traditional, laborious Salmonella serotyping procedure. Molecular beacons were incorporated into the assay as probes f...

    Authors: Andreas V Hadjinicolaou, Victoria L Demetriou, Maria A Emmanuel, Charalambos K Kakoyiannis and Leondios G Kostrikis
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:97
  23. Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts for numerous disease causing organisms. Vector control is one of the most investigated strategy for the suppression of mosquito-borne diseases. Anopheles stephensi is one of the ...

    Authors: Asha Rani, Anil Sharma, Raman Rajagopal, Tridibesh Adak and Raj K Bhatnagar
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:96
  24. The catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is a member of the LacI/GalR family of transcriptional regulators controlling carbon-metabolism pathways in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. It functions as a catabolite r...

    Authors: Kati Seidl, Susanne Müller, Patrice François, Carsten Kriebitzsch, Jacques Schrenzel, Susanne Engelmann, Markus Bischoff and Brigitte Berger-Bächi
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:95
  25. Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken c...

    Authors: Guillermo Figueroa, Miriam Troncoso, Cristián López, Patricia Rivas and Magaly Toro
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:94
  26. The 19 kDa lipoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an important target of the innate immune response. To investigate the effect of post-translation modification of this protein on innate recognition in...

    Authors: Katalin A Wilkinson, Sandra M Newton, Graham R Stewart, Adrian R Martineau, Janisha Patel, Susan M Sullivan, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Olivier Neyrolles, Douglas B Young and Robert J Wilkinson
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:93
  27. The lipopolysaccharide is a major antigen and virulence factor of Brucella, an important bacterial pathogen. In smooth brucellae, lipopolysaccharide is made of lipid A-core oligosaccharide and N-formylperosamine ...

    Authors: Michel S Zygmunt, José M Blasco, Jean-Jacques Letesson, Axel Cloeckaert and Ignacio Moriyón
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:92
  28. The natural product Emodin demonstrates a wide range of pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferation, vasorelaxant and anti-H. pylori activities. Although its H. pylori in...

    Authors: Jing Chen, Liang Zhang, Yu Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Jiamu Du, Jianping Ding, Yuewei Guo, Hualiang Jiang and Xu Shen
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:91
  29. Trypanosoma cruzi, a kinetoplastid protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, infects approximately 15 million people in Central and South America. In contrast to the substantial in silico studies of the T. c...

    Authors: Dan Xu, Cecilia Pérez Brandán, Miguel Ángel Basombrío and Rick L Tarleton
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:90
  30. The infection and virulence functions of diverse plant and animal pathogens that possess quorum sensing systems are regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) acting as signal molecules. AHL-acylase is a quoru...

    Authors: Chin-Nung Chen, Chii-Jaan Chen, Chen-Ting Liao and Chia-Yin Lee
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:89
  31. Burkholderia mallei is a zoonotic Gram negative bacterium which primarily infects solipeds but can cause lethal disease in humans if left untreated. The effect of two antibiotics with different modes of action on...

    Authors: Barbara M Judy, Gregory C Whitlock, Alfredo G Torres and D Mark Estes
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:88
  32. Probiotic bacteria are thought to play an important role in the digestive system and therefore have to survive the passage from stomach to intestines. Recently, a novel approach to simulate the passage from st...

    Authors: Philipp Ritter, Christian Kohler and Ueli von Ah
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:87
  33. Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbi...

    Authors: Paula M Moolhuijzen, Ala E Lew-Tabor, Bartosz M Wlodek, Fernán G Agüero, Diego J Comerci, Rodolfo A Ugalde, Daniel O Sanchez, Rudi Appels and Matthew Bellgard
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:86
  34. One of the major sources of human Salmonella infections is meat. Therefore, efficient and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain is necessary. Validation of alternative methods is needed to p...

    Authors: Charlotta Löfström, Michael Krause, Mathilde H Josefsen, Flemming Hansen and Jeffrey Hoorfar
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:85
  35. The wild rodent Calomys callosus is notably resistant to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In order to better characterize this animal model for experimental infections, we inoculated C. callosus intraperitoneally wit...

    Authors: Rogério M Fortes, André Kipnis and Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:84
  36. Much of the Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes hypothetical proteins with limited homology to other organisms. A lack of robust tools for genetic manipulation of the parasite limits functional analysis of these...

    Authors: Bharath Balu, Chitra Chauhan, Steven P Maher, Douglas A Shoue, Jessica C Kissinger, Malcolm J Fraser Jr and John H Adams
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:83
  37. Although Staphylococcus aureus is considered the main etiological agent of infectious mastitis, recent studies have suggested that coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) may also play an important role in such in...

    Authors: Susana Delgado, Rebeca Arroyo, Esther Jiménez, Maria L Marín, Rosa del Campo, Leonides Fernández and Juan M Rodríguez
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:82
  38. Brucella spp. are the etiological agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic infectious disease that causes abortion in animals and chronic debilitating illness in humans. Natural Brucella infections occur primarily throu...

    Authors: Carlos A Rossetti, Cristi L Galindo, Sara D Lawhon, Harold R Garner and L Garry Adams
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:81
  39. PspA is recognized as a major pneumococcal virulence factor and a possible vaccine candidate. The aim of this study was to analyze the PspA family and clade distribution among 112 Spanish pneumococci represent...

    Authors: Dora Rolo, Carmen Ardanuy, Ana Fleites, Rogelio Martín and Josefina Liñares
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:80
  40. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 is an important virus due to its use as a safe and effective human gene therapy vector and its negative association with certain malignancies. AAV, a dependo-parvovirus, aut...

    Authors: Bum Yong Kang, Hong You, Sarmistha Bandyopadhyay, Nalini Agrawal, Russell B Melchert, Alexei G Basnakian, Yong Liu and Paul L Hermonat
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:79
  41. Finding the amino acid mutations that affect the severity of influenza infections remains an open and challenging problem. Of special interest is better understanding how current circulating influenza strains ...

    Authors: Jonathan E Allen, Shea N Gardner, Elizabeth A Vitalis and Tom R Slezak
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:77
  42. Previous evaluation by different molecular and physiological assays of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) responses to heat shock exposure yielded a still fragmentary view of the mechanisms determining bacterial s...

    Authors: Bénédicte Fleury, William L Kelley, Daniel Lew, Friedrich Götz, Richard A Proctor and Pierre Vaudaux
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:76
  43. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that possess a type III secretion system to deliver proteins into the host cell during infection. Small molecule inhibitors of type III secretion in Yersinia, terme...

    Authors: Sandra Muschiol, Staffan Normark, Birgitta Henriques-Normark and Agathe Subtil
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:75
  44. Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment.

    Authors: Kelly Ishida, Juliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues, Marcos Dornelas Ribeiro, Taíssa Vieira Machado Vila, Wanderley de Souza, Julio A Urbina, Celso Vataru Nakamura and Sonia Rozental
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:74
  45. The type III secretion systems (T3SSs) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) are important for invasion of epithelial cells during development of Salmonella-associated enterocolitis...

    Authors: Hao Gong, Jing Su, Yong Bai, Lu Miao, Kihoon Kim, Yonghua Yang, Fenyong Liu and Sangwei Lu
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:73
  46. The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP). These studies reinforced the presence of t...

    Authors: Tatum S Simonson, Richard T Okinaka, Bingxiang Wang, W Ryan Easterday, Lynn Huynh, Jana M U'Ren, Meghan Dukerich, Shaylan R Zanecki, Leo J Kenefic, Jodi Beaudry, James M Schupp, Talima Pearson, David M Wagner, Alex Hoffmaster, Jacques Ravel and Paul Keim
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:71

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