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  1. Tandem repeats contained within coding regions can mediate phase variation when the repeated units change the reading frame of the coding sequence in a copy number dependent manner. Coding tandem repeats are t...

    Authors: Philip Jordan, Lori AS Snyder and Nigel J Saunders

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:23

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Bacterial mercury resistance is based on enzymatic reduction of ionic mercury to elemental mercury and has recently been demonstrated to be applicable for industrial wastewater clean-up. The long-term monitori...

    Authors: Andreas DM Felske, Wanda Fehr, Björg V Pauling, Harald von Canstein and Irene Wagner-Döbler

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:22

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an increasingly prevalent opportunistic pathogen, utilizes a type III secretion system for injection of toxins into host cells in order to initiate infection. A crucial component of this s...

    Authors: Max Nanao, Sylvie Ricard-Blum, Anne Marie Di Guilmi, David Lemaire, David Lascoux, Jacqueline Chabert, Ina Attree and Andréa Dessen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:21

    Content type: Research article

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  4. To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tes...

    Authors: Tina Mygind, Lars Østergaard, Svend Birkelund, Jes S Lindholt and Gunna Christiansen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:19

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Bacterial macrofibers twist as they grow, writhe, supercoil and wind up into plectonemic structures (helical forms the individual filaments of which cannot be taken apart without unwinding) that eventually car...

    Authors: Neil H Mendelson, Patrick Shipman, Darshan Roy, Liling Chen and John J Thwaites

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:18

    Content type: Research article

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  6. In spite of Argentina having one of the highest frequencies of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), the incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is low in comparison to rates registered in the US. Isolation of several...

    Authors: Pablo M Molina, Alberto E Parma and Marcelo E Sanz

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:17

    Content type: Research article

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  7. It is well known that expression of certain bacterial genes responds rapidly to such stimuli as exposure to toxic chemicals and physical agents. It is generally believed that the proteins encoded in these gene...

    Authors: Yuko Yamaguchi, Toshifumi Tomoyasu, Akiko Takaya, Mizue Morioka and Tomoko Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:16

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes ...

    Authors: Betsy J Bricker, Darla R Ewalt and Shirley M Halling

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:15

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae possesses large zinc metalloproteinases on its surface. To analyse the importance in virulence of three of these metalloproteinases, intranasal challenge of MF1 outbred mice was carried o...

    Authors: Damiana Chiavolini, Guido Memmi, Tiziana Maggi, Francesco Iannelli, Gianni Pozzi and Marco R Oggioni

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:14

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium (M. avium) is frequently encountered in the environment, but also causes infections in animals and immunocompromised patients. In contrast, Mycobacterium avium subspecies para...

    Authors: John P Bannantine, Qing Zhang, Ling-Ling Li and Vivek Kapur

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:10

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Actin is required for the gene expression and morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a clinically important Pneumovirus of the Paramyxoviridae family. In HEp-2 cells, RSV infection also induces actin...

    Authors: Vira Bitko, Anja Oldenburg, Nicolle E Garmon and Sailen Barik

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:9

    Content type: Research article

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  12. We report cloning and characterization of a novel Leishmania infantum protein which we termed Lepp12, and we examine its possible implication in the interference with intramacrophage signaling pathways.

    Authors: Konstantina Fragaki, Bernard Ferrua, Baharia Mograbi, Julie Waldispühl and Joanna Kubar

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:7

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Ebola virus causes severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. The mechanism of escape from cellular anti-viral mechanisms is not yet fully understood. The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) associated nuclear...

    Authors: Asa Szekely Björndal, Laszlo Szekely and Fredrik Elgh

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:6

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Staphylococcus aureus infection of normal osteoblasts induces expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    Authors: Emily H Alexander, F Andrea Rivera, Ian Marriott, Juan Anguita, Kenneth L Bost and Michael C Hudson

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:5

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Putrescine is the intermediate product of arginine decarboxylase pathway in Escherichia coli which can be used as an alternative nitrogen source. Transaminase and dehydrogenase enzymes seem to be implicated in th...

    Authors: Natalya N Samsonova, Sergey V Smirnov, Irina B Altman and Leonid R Ptitsyn

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:2

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In general, chemotaxis in Rhizobium has not been well characterized. Methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins are sensory proteins important in chemotaxis of numerous bacteria, but their involvement in Rhizobium chem...

    Authors: Christopher K Yost, Kirsten T Clark, Kate L Del Bel and Michael F Hynes

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2003 3:1

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The association of an infectious agent with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been difficult and is further complicated by the lack of a known lesion or diseased tissue. Cell-free plasma DNA could serve as a ...

    Authors: Suzanne D Vernon, Sanjay K Shukla, Jennifer Conradt, Elizabeth R Unger and William C Reeves

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:39

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae causes human respiratory diseases and has recently been associated with atherosclerosis. Analysis of the three recently published C. pneumoniae genomes has led to the identification of a new ...

    Authors: Wasna Viratyosin, Lee Ann Campbell, Cho-Chou Kuo and Daniel D Rockey

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:38

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Currently available reference methods for the molecular epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex either lack sensitivity or are still too tedious and slow for routine application. Recently, tandem r...

    Authors: Philippe Le Flèche, Michel Fabre, France Denoeud, Jean-Louis Koeck and Gilles Vergnaud

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:37

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria, which are important human pathogens. Genome sequences of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae have revealed the presence of a Chlamydia specific gene family encoding po...

    Authors: Brian Berg Vandahl, Anna Sofie Pedersen, Kris Gevaert, Arne Holm, Joël Vandekerckhove, Gunna Christiansen and Svend Birkelund

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:36

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In 1982 Smith and Huggins showed that bacteriophages could be at least as effective as antibiotics in preventing mortality from experimental infections with a capsulated E. coli (K1) in mice. Phages that requi...

    Authors: J J Bull, Bruce R Levin, Terry DeRouin, Nina Walker and Craig A Bloch

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:35

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Development of sulphonamide resistance in Neisseria meningitidis has been suggested to involve horizontal DNA-transfer from a commensal Neisseria species. In this study, we isolated commensal Neisseria from throa...

    Authors: Yvonne Qvarnström and Göte Swedberg

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:34

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Bacillus mycoides Flügge, a Gram-positive, non-motile soil bacterium assigned to Bacillus cereus group, grows on agar as chains of cells linked end to end, forming radial filaments curving clock- or counter-clock...

    Authors: Carmen Di Franco, Elena Beccari, Tiziana Santini, Giuseppe Pisaneschi and Giorgio Tecce

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:33

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The Sec-dependent protein export apparatus of Escherichia coli is very efficient at correctly identifying proteins to be exported from the cytoplasm. Even bacterial strains that carry prl mutations, which allow e...

    Authors: Ipsita Mallik, Margaret A Smith and Ann M Flower

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:32

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Virulence genes on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) are coordinately regulated by HilA, a member of the OmpR/ToxR family of transcription factors. Although a great deal is known about the complex regulati...

    Authors: Christine R Rodriguez, Lisa M Schechter and Catherine A Lee

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:31

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Exported proteases are commonly associated with virulence in bacterial pathogens, yet there is a paucity of information regarding their role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There are five genes (mycP1-5) present w...

    Authors: Joel A Dave, Nico C Gey van Pittius, Albert D Beyers, Mario RW Ehlers and Gordon D Brown

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:30

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The high degree of sequence heterogeneity found in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates, makes robust nucleic acid-based assays difficult to generate. Polymerase chain reaction based techniques, require efficient ...

    Authors: Ping Qiu, Xiao-Yan Cai, Luquan Wang, Jonathan R Greene and Bruce Malcolm

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:29

    Content type: Methodology article

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  28. PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes provides the most comprehensive and flexible means of sampling bacterial communities. Sequence analysis of these cloned fragments can provide a qualitative and qua...

    Authors: Elena Busti, Roberta Bordoni, Bianca Castiglioni, Paolo Monciardini, Margherita Sosio, Stefano Donadio, Clarissa Consolandi, Luigi Rossi Bernardi, Cristina Battaglia and Gianluca De Bellis

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:27

    Content type: Methodology article

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  29. The aberrant cell-cycle progression of HIV-1-infected kidney cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy, however the mechanisms whereby HIV-1 induces infected glomerular podocyt...

    Authors: Peter J Nelson, Masaaki Sunamoto, Mohammad Husain and Irwin H Gelman

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:26

    Content type: Research article

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  30. We have previously reported that altered culture conditions (a broth media with shaking) could induce a strain of Helicobacter pylori to assume a long spiral morphology resembling that described for Helicobacter ...

    Authors: Kathleen MB Vinette, Kathleen M Gibney, Roy Proujansky and Paul T Fawcett

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:24

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Detecting microbial life in extraterrestrial locations is a goal of space exploration because of ecological and health concerns about possible contamination of other planets with earthly organisms, and vice ve...

    Authors: Ronald L Crawford, Andrzej Paszczynski, Qingyong Lang, Daniel P Erwin, Lisa Allenbach, Giancarlo Corti, Tony J Anderson, I Francis Cheng, Chien Wai, Bruce Barnes, Richard Wells, Touraj Assefi and Mohammad Mojarradi

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:22

    Content type: Methodology article

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  32. The number of patients with yeast infection has increased during the last years. Also the variety of species of clinical importance has increased. Correct species identification is often important for efficien...

    Authors: Thierry De Baere, Geert Claeys, Danielle Swinne, Caroline Massonet, Gerda Verschraegen, An Muylaert and Mario Vaneechoutte

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:21

    Content type: Methodology article

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  33. An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of th...

    Authors: Ruth Tachezy, Annabel Rector, Marta Havelkova, Elke Wollants, Pierre Fiten, Ghislain Opdenakker, A Bennett Jenson, John P Sundberg and Marc Van Ranst

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:19

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Insertion Sequence (IS) elements are mobile genetic elements widely distributed among bacteria. Their activities cause mutations, promoting genetic diversity and sometimes adaptation. Previous studies have exa...

    Authors: Dominique Schneider, Esther Duperchy, Joëlle Depeyrot, Evelyne Coursange, Richard E Lenski and Michel Blot

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:18

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been detected by serological methods, but PCR is gaining more interest. A number of different PCR assays have been developed and some are used in combination with serology for d...

    Authors: Tina Mygind, Svend Birkelund, Niels H Birkebæk, Lars Østergaard, Jørgen Skov Jensen and Gunna Christiansen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:17

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Since Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiol...

    Authors: Sabrina Corti and Roger Stephan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:15

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Methods for the extraction of DNA from filamentous fungi are frequently laborious and time consuming because most of the available protocols include maceration in liquid nitrogen after the mycelium has been gr...

    Authors: Alexandre Cassago, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci, Ana Maria Tortella Baião and Flavio Henrique-Silva

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:14

    Content type: Methodology article

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  38. Escherichia coli can respire anaerobically using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic energy generation. Expression of the dmsABC genes that e...

    Authors: Shawn MD Bearson, Jeffrey A Albrecht and Robert P Gunsalus

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2002 2:13

    Content type: Research article

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