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  1. Restriction/modification systems provide the dual function of protecting host DNA against restriction by methylation of appropriate bases within their recognition sequences, and restriction of foreign invading...

    Authors: Jonathan O'Driscoll, Daniel F Heiter, Geoffrey G Wilson, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Richard Roberts and Douwe van Sinderen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:40

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Inserting transgenes into bacterial chromosomes is generally quite involved, requiring a selection for cells carrying the insertion, usually for drug-resistance, or multiple cumbersome manipulations, or both. ...

    Authors: Gregory J McKenzie and Nancy L Craig

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:39

    Content type: Methodology article

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  3. Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, has a wide host range. Few epidemiological tools are available, and they are often expensive or not easily standardized across laboratories. In this work, C. bur...

    Authors: Nathalie Arricau-Bouvery, Yolande Hauck, Awatef Bejaoui, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, Christelle C Bodier, Armel Souriau, Hermann Meyer, Heinrich Neubauer, Annie Rodolakis and Gilles Vergnaud

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:38

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Streptococcus mutans produces bacteriocins named mutacins. Studies of mutacins have always been hampered by the difficulties in obtaining active liquid preparations of these substances. Some of them were found to...

    Authors: Guillaume Nicolas, Hélène Morency, Gisèle LaPointe and Marc C Lavoie

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:36

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The establishment of the cellular localization of proteins in M. tuberculosis will provide of valuable information for the identification of new drug/vaccine/diagnostic targets. Cytolocalization by inmunofluoresc...

    Authors: Mena Cimino, Lorenzo Alamo and Leiria Salazar

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:35

    Content type: Methodology article

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  6. Bacillus anthracis is considered to be a recently emerged clone within the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. The B. anthracis genome sequence contains four putative lambdoid prophages. We undertook this study in ...

    Authors: Shanmuga Sozhamannan, Michael D Chute, Farrell D McAfee, Derrick E Fouts, Arya Akmal, Darrell R Galloway, Alfred Mateczun, Leslie W Baillie and Timothy D Read

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:34

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) Analysis (ML...

    Authors: Florigio Lista, Giovanni Faggioni, Samina Valjevac, Andrea Ciammaruconi, Josée Vaissaire, Claudine le Doujet, Olivier Gorgé, Riccardo De Santis, Alessandra Carattoli, Alessandra Ciervo, Antonio Fasanella, Francesco Orsini, Raffaele D'Amelio, Christine Pourcel, Antonio Cassone and Gilles Vergnaud

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:33

    Content type: Methodology article

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  8. Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of antecedent infection in post-infectious neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barré (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndromes (MFS). GBS and MFS are probably induced by molecu...

    Authors: Peggy CR Godschalk, Mathijs P Bergman, Raymond FJ Gorkink, Guus Simons, Nicole van den Braak, Albert J Lastovica, Hubert P Endtz, Henri A Verbrugh and Alex van Belkum

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:32

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Transcriptional regulation processes are the principal mechanisms of adaptation in prokaryotes. In these processes, the regulatory proteins and the regulatory DNA signals located in extragenic regions are the ...

    Authors: Eduardo Pareja, Pablo Pareja-Tobes, Marina Manrique, Eduardo Pareja-Tobes, Javier Bonal and Raquel Tobes

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:29

    Content type: Database

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  10. Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen associated with ingestion of infant formula and accurate identification is important in both industrial and clinical settings. Bacterial species can be difficult to ...

    Authors: Carol Iversen, Lee Lancashire, Michael Waddington, Stephen Forsythe and Graham Ball

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:28

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The Salmonella enterica BarA-SirA, the Erwinia carotovora ExpS-ExpA, the Vibrio cholerae BarA-VarA and the Pseudomonas spp GacS-GacA all belong to the same orthologous family of two-component systems as the Esche...

    Authors: Henrik Tomenius, Anna-Karin Pernestig, Kristina Jonas, Dimitris Georgellis, Roland Möllby, Staffan Normark and Öjar Melefors

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:27

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the foremost oral pathogen of adult periodontitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of bacterial invasion and the resultant destruction of the gingival tissue remain largely undefined...

    Authors: Sonya Urnowey, Toshihiro Ansai, Vira Bitko, Koji Nakayama, Tadamichi Takehara and Sailen Barik

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:26

    Content type: Research article

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    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in BMC Microbiology 2019 19:227

  13. Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfl...

    Authors: Andrea Johner, Stefan Kunz, Markus Linder, Yasmin Shakur and Thomas Seebeck

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:25

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR...

    Authors: Karine Brudey, Jeffrey R Driscoll, Leen Rigouts, Wolfgang M Prodinger, Andrea Gori, Sahal A Al-Hajoj, Caroline Allix, Liselotte Aristimuño, Jyoti Arora, Viesturs Baumanis, Lothar Binder, Patricia Cafrune, Angel Cataldi, Soonfatt Cheong, Roland Diel, Christopher Ellermeier…

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:23

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus can usually be distinguished by standard microbiological methods (e.g., motility, hemolysis, penicillin susceptibility and susceptibility to gamma phage) and PCR. However, w...

    Authors: Chung K Marston, Jay E Gee, Tanja Popovic and Alex R Hoffmaster

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:22

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Simple computerized methods that analyse variability along alignments of nucleotide or amino acid sequences can be very useful in a clinical microbiology laboratory for two main purposes. First, to optimize pr...

    Authors: Philippe Colson, Catherine Tamalet and Didier Raoult

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:21

    Content type: Software

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  17. Cereulide, a depsipeptide structurally related to valinomycin, is responsible for the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease caused by Bacillus cereus. Recently, it has been shown that this toxin is produced by ...

    Authors: Monika Ehling-Schulz, Martina Fricker, Harald Grallert, Petra Rieck, Martin Wagner and Siegfried Scherer

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:20

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Over the last decades molecular biologic techniques have been developed to alter the genome and proteome of Tetrahymena thermophila thereby providing the basis for recombinant protein expression including functio...

    Authors: Lutz Herrmann, Michael Erkelenz, Ingo Aldag, Arno Tiedtke and Marcus WW Hartmann

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:19

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Flow cytometry based adherence assay is a potentially powerful but little used method in the study of bacterial binding to host structures. We have previously characterized a glycoprotein-binding activity in Stre...

    Authors: Jukka Hytönen, Sauli Haataja and Jukka Finne

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:18

    Content type: Research article

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  20. It has been reported that some marine cyanophage are temperate and can be induced from a lysogenic phase to a lytic phase by different agents such as heavy metals. However, to date no significant reports have ...

    Authors: Lee H Lee, Doris Lui, Patricia J Platner, Shi-Fang Hsu, Tin-Chun Chu, John J Gaynor, Quinn C Vega and Bonnie K Lustigman

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:17

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Prevention of a possible avian influenza pandemic necessitates the development of rapid diagnostic tests and the eventual production of a vaccine.

    Authors: Nitar Nwe, Qigai He, Sudarat Damrongwatanapokin, Qingyun Du, Ivanus Manopo, Yukol Limlamthong, Beau James Fenner, Lynn Spencer and Jimmy Kwang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:16

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Enterobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. The current FDA detection...

    Authors: Angelika Lehner, Sabine Nitzsche, Pieter Breeuwer, Benjamin Diep, Karin Thelen and Roger Stephan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:15

    Content type: Methodology article

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  23. Arginine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is elevated in response to nutrient limitation, stress or arginine restriction. Though control of the pathway in response to arginine limitation is largely modulated by t...

    Authors: Jeevaka P Weerasinghe, Tao Dong, Michael R Schertzberg, Mark G Kirchhof, Yuan Sun and Herb E Schellhorn

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:14

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Brucella is an intracellular pathogen capable of infecting animals and humans. There are six recognized species of Brucella that differ in their host preference. The genomes of the three Brucella species have bee...

    Authors: Vladyslava G Ratushna, David M Sturgill, Sheela Ramamoorthy, Sherry A Reichow, Yongqun He, Raju Lathigra, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Shirley M Halling, Stephen M Boyle and Cynthia J Gibas

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:13

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Among the 17 genes encoding autotransporter proteins of the "surface cell antigen" (sca) family in the currently sequenced Rickettsia genomes, ompA, sca 5 (ompB) and sca 4 (gene D), have been extensively used for...

    Authors: Maxime Ngwamidiba, Guillaume Blanc, Didier Raoult and Pierre-Edouard Fournier

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Horizontal gene transfer is an important source of genetic variation among Neisseria species and has contributed to the spread of resistance to penicillin and sulfonamide drugs in the pathogen Neisseria meningiti...

    Authors: Yvonne Qvarnstrom and Gote Swedberg

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:11

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) persistently infects and survives within the host macrophages. While it is established that substantial genotypic var...

    Authors: Harish K Janagama, Kwang il Jeong, Vivek Kapur, Paul Coussens and Srinand Sreevatsan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The classification of Brucella into species and biovars relies on phenotypic characteristics and sometimes raises difficulties in the interpretation of the results due to an absence of standardization of the typi...

    Authors: Philippe Le Flèche, Isabelle Jacques, Maggy Grayon, Sascha Al Dahouk, Patrick Bouchon, France Denoeud, Karsten Nöckler, Heinrich Neubauer, Laurence A Guilloteau and Gilles Vergnaud

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:9

    Content type: Research article

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  29. It has been recently reported that major pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accelerate a normal process of cell surface syndecan-1 (Synd1) ectodomain shedding as a mechanism of host damage...

    Authors: Taissia G Popova, Bryan Millis, Chris Bradburne, Svetlana Nazarenko, Charles Bailey, Vikas Chandhoke and Serguei G Popov

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:8

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Aspergillus niger, a saprophyte commonly found on decaying vegetation, is widely used and studied for industrial purposes. Despite its place as one of the most important organisms for commercial applications, the...

    Authors: Natalia Semova, Reginald Storms, Tricia John, Pascale Gaudet, Peter Ulycznyj, Xiang Jia Min, Jian Sun, Greg Butler and Adrian Tsang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Trichomonosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the number one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) that affects more than 250 million people worldwide. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) has been implicated in res...

    Authors: V Mundodi, AS Kucknoor, T-H Chang and JF Alderete

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] forms. The EPA maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (...

    Authors: Rene' N Horton, William A Apel, Vicki S Thompson and Peter P Sheridan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops, which has a severe impact on wheat and barley production worldwide. Apart from reducing the yield and impairing grain quality, FHB leads to contaminatio...

    Authors: Christoph Brandfass and Petr Karlovsky

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:4

    Content type: Methodology article

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  34. A potentially lethal flux of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is continuously generated during aerobic metabolism. It follows that aerobic organisms have equipped themselves with specific H2O2 dismutases and H2O2 reducta...

    Authors: Bjorn Vergauwen, Mark Herbert and Jozef J Van Beeumen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:3

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Coxiella burnetii, the bacterium causing Q fever, is an obligate intracellular biosafety level 3 agent. Detection and quantification of these bacteria with conventional methods is time consuming and dangerous. Du...

    Authors: Silke R Klee, Judith Tyczka, Heinz Ellerbrok, Tatjana Franz, Sonja Linke, Georg Baljer and Bernd Appel

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:2

    Content type: Research article

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  36. There is an increasing interest to better understand endosymbiont capabilities in insects both from an ecological point of view and for pest control. Blochmannia floridanus provides important nutrients for its ho...

    Authors: Peter Gaudermann, Ina Vogl, Evelyn Zientz, Francisco J Silva, Andres Moya, Roy Gross and Thomas Dandekar

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Precise identification of bacterial pathogens at the strain level is essential for epidemiological purposes. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the existence of 90 different serotypes makes the typing particularly diff...

    Authors: Jean-Louis Koeck, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Sonia Cade, Emmanuelle Varon, Lassana Sangare, Samina Valjevac, Gilles Vergnaud and Christine Pourcel

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:66

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora forms complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies called perithecia that protect the developing ascospores and ensure their proper discharge. In previous microarray analys...

    Authors: Minou Nowrousian and Patricia Cebula

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:64

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections can lead to the development of severe post-infectious sequelae, such as rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). RF and RHD are a major health concern in d...

    Authors: Nonglak Yoonim, Colleen Olive, Chulabhorn Pruksachatkunakorn, Michael F Good and Sumalee Pruksakorn

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:63

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually made using Nugent's criteria, a useful but rather laborious scoring system based on counting bacterial cell types on Gram stained slides of vagin...

    Authors: Rita Verhelst, Hans Verstraelen, Geert Claeys, Gerda Verschraegen, Leen Van Simaey, Catharine De Ganck, Ellen De Backer, Marleen Temmerman and Mario Vaneechoutte

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:61

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Analysis of the first reported complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705, an actinobacterium colonizing the gastrointestinal tract, uncovered its proteomic relatedness to Streptomyces coelicolor ...

    Authors: Lionel Guy, Dimitri Karamata, Philippe Moreillon and Claude-Alain H Roten

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:60

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Polyamines such as spermine and spermidine are required for growth of Escherichia coli; they interact with nucleic acids, and they bind to ribosomes. Polyamines block porins and decrease membrane permeability, ac...

    Authors: Elizabeth Yohannes, Amy E Thurber, Jessica C Wilks, Daniel P Tate and Joan L Slonczewski

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:59

    Content type: Research article

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  43. We present an overview of bacterial non-classical secretion and a prediction method for identification of proteins following signal peptide independent secretion pathways. We have compiled a list of proteins f...

    Authors: Jannick D Bendtsen, Lars Kiemer, Anders Fausbøll and Søren Brunak

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:58

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Two putative methionine aminopeptidase genes, map (essential) and yflG (non-essential), were identified in the genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis. We investigated whether they can function as methionine aminope...

    Authors: CongHui You, HongYan Lu, Agnieszka Sekowska, Gang Fang, YiPing Wang, Anne-Marie Gilles and Antoine Danchin

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2005 5:57

    Content type: Research article

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