- Research article
- Open Access
The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor
© Gallaher et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2001
- Received: 13 December 2000
- Accepted: 9 February 2001
- Published: 9 February 2001
Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein.
Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa fever virus, are presented, based on consistent structural propensities despite variation in the amino acid sequence. The principal features of the model, a hydrophobic amino terminus, and two antiparallel helices separated by a glycosylated, antigenic apex, are common to a number of otherwise disparate families of enveloped RNA viruses. Within the first amphipathic helix, demonstrable by circular dichroism of a peptide fragment, there is a highly conserved heptad repeat pattern proposed to mediate multimerization by coiled-coil interactions. The amino terminal 18 amino acids are 28% identical and 50% highly similar to the corresponding region of Ebola, a member of the Filovirus family. Within the second, charged helix just prior to membrane insertion there is also high similarity over the central 18 amino acids in corresponding regions of Lassa and Ebola, which may be further related to the similar region of HIV-1 defining a potent antiviral peptide analogue.
These findings indicate a common pattern of structure and function among viral transmembrane fusion proteins from a number of virus families. Such a pattern may define a viral transmembrane superfamily that evolved from a common precursor eons ago.
- Fusion Peptide
- Peptide Analogue
- Virus Family
- Heptad Repeat
- Amphipathic Helix
Findings in a number of laboratories have indicated that the transmembrane (TM) proteins of a number of RNA viruses have common structural and functional elements critical for virus entry. These include a hydrophobic region designated a "fusion peptide", usually at or near the amino-terminus generated by cleavage of a precursor protein, together with fibrous structure defined by two antiparallel alpha helices. These general principles appear to apply to the Orthomyxoviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Retroviruses, Lentiviruses, and Filoviruses [1,2,3,4]. In some cases, such as between Ebola and Rous sarcoma viruses, there is considerable sequence identity to facilitate a comparison between two specific viruses . In other cases, even within a single virus family such as the Retroviridae, both structural modeling and more limited sequence similarity must be combined to discern the relationship . The finding of close sequence or structural similarity among otherwise disparate virus families has given rise to the concept of a viral TM superfamily sharing common structural and functional motifs . Recent biophysical studies of entry protein structure have reinforced this concept [5,6].
In this respect, a general model of the Arenavirus glycoproteins, based on extensive study of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has been presented based on their overall similarity in functional organization to influenza and to other enveloped viruses. The GP-C precursor is proteolytically cleaved near a polybasic site to yield GP-1, a globular surface glycoprotein which contains receptor-binding sites, and GP-2, a TM protein forming the stalk of the complex via a coiled coil of amphipathic helices and responsible for virus entry by acid-dependent membrane fusion [7,8,9,10].
We present here a detailed model of GP-2 for Lassa fever virus, an Arenavirus associated with multiple epidemics of hemorrhagic fever with high morbidity and mortality in West Africa [11,12], and for the related lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) which has been associated with sporadic outbreaks of human disease in Europe and North America . This model demonstrates that Arenaviruses share a number of specific sequence and structural motifs with other RNA viruses in the TM superfamily. Regions of Arenavirus GP-2 can be directly related to corresponding regions of Ebola, another agent of African hemorrhagic fever, and to HIV-1. Examination of the comparable regions of TM proteins from several virus families provides evidence suggesting divergence from a common ancestor.
The region prior to the first helix consists first of a glycine-serine rich linker, and then a domain that is highly conserved among all Arenaviruses and contains four cysteines. Only the last of these four is conserved between the Filoviruses and Arenaviruses. We have not assigned disulfide linkages for these since there are neither data nor parallels with other viruses to permit such assignments. Since there is no disulfide cross-linkage with GP-1, these must participate in disulfide bonding within the same GP-2 protein, or in cross-linking GP-2 oligomers. The latter possibility is suggested by the kinetics of GP-2 association with experimental addition of reducing agent, indicating first a change in vitro from tetramers to dimers and then to monomers only after considerable additional reduction . Whether the native multimeric form of GP-2 in the virion may be a trimer, as for the fusion glycoproteins of Retroviruses or Filoviruses, is yet to be determined.
Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of Peptide GPC 326-355
Θ222 (deg cm2 dmol-1)
% alpha helicity (100%=32,000)
Comparison of the sequences of Lassa and LCM over this amphipathic heptad-repeat region (below) shows 31 identical of 58 amino acids, with the principal areas of conservation of sequence at the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of the amphipathic helix.
The middle 25 amino acids appear poorly conserved, with only 6 of 25 identical, yet the character of the amino acids substituted is generally conserved. In particular, while none of the central 4 heptad amino acids (underlined and in bold) are identical in each virus, in all cases the hydrophobic character of the heptad repeat is maintained.
The apical domain is the only region to be glycosylated, also in line with a number of TM proteins including that of HIV-1 and other Retroviruses. The apical sequence, particularly the peptide KFWYL in LCMV or KYWYL in Lassa, defines a broadly-cross reactive antibody epitope shared by these viruses  that is in precisely the same topographical location as the broadly-reactive apical epitope (positions 598-609, LGIWGCSGKLIC) that has been finely mapped in HIV-1 . Also like that in HIV-1, it is responsive to multimer conformation, and increasingly exposed after receptor binding that results in release of the binding subunit, GP-1 .
The second helical region has properties similar to that of the Retroviruses and Filoviruses, in that it is highly charged (30%) and amphipathic, with its helicity possibly stabilized by multiple ion pairings of acidic and basic residues, as first noted for the corresponding region of HIV-1 
The carboxy-terminal helical region also has properties in common with the similarly located helices in both Lassa and Ebola, shown as a concentric helical wheel projection in Figure 2B. Again, orienting the helix with respect to the hemicylindrical exclusion of charge, 9 identical or highly similar amino acids (50%) may be aligned. Furthermore, none of the amino acid differences represent a radical change of one sequence from the other.
Arenaviruses therefore share with a number of other virus families a fusion/entry protein GP-2 that appears to have the four cardinal structural features typical of proteins in the viral transmembrane entry protein superfamily. Our model of the extramembranal portion of GP-2 begins with a hydrophobic fusion peptide sequence, followed by two antiparallel extended helices, the first of which contains a strong heptad repeat sequence, which lie on either side of a disulfide-stabilized, glycosylated and strongly antigenic reverse turn. These features have been apparently maintained in spite of diversity in primary amino acid sequence within the Arenavirus family.
The most likely explanation for such high levels of similarity among Arenaviruses and Filoviruses would be divergence of both of these agents from a common viral ancestor. Since both virus families exhibit type variation over large areas coupled with stability among isolates within a more limited geographical area over considerable periods of time (the Arenaviruses being the more widespread) such divergence must have occurred eons ago. The potential importance of such apparent conservation in the biology of these agents is underscored by noting that of the corresponding peptide sequences within the TM superfamily of proteins, that for HIV-1 forms the center of a peptide analogue shown to inhibit fusion in the nanomolar range .
Modeling studies begun in the late 1980s have thus revealed a number of common and sequence motifs, subsequently shown in several cases to have homologous biological roles in infection, that were not otherwise apparent in studies of sequence homology. These models may lead to a common strategy of antiviral inhibition preventing entry of virus into host cells that is broadly applicable over a broad range of very diverse virus families.
Sequences used for this analysis were LCMV - ARM (Genbank P09991) and Lassa, Josiah (Genbank P08669), and are numbered from the initiation methionine. Detailed models of the Arenavirus GP-1 proteins were determined by the methods of Gallaher et al. previously described [3,4,21] A consensus of several independent structural algorithms is used, and compared for different GP-2 sequences to test the consensus. The resulting model is an average consensus of the algorithms for these two sequences. Models are projected in helical net or helical wheel projections also as previously described.
Peptide Synthesis and Circular Dichroism
A peptide corresponding to amino acid positions 326-355 of LCMV-ARM-4 (Genbank VGXPLM) in single letter code, NKAALSKFKEDVESALHLFKTTVNSLISDQ, with an additional histidine at the N terminus was synthesized by standard BOC chemistry using double coupling and HF cleavage. The peptide was purified by reverse phase HPLC on a C-18 column and the peptide's weight confirmed by mass spectroscopy. The peptide was selected as predicted by the Lupas algorithm  to have a greater than 90% probability of forming a heptad repeat in the native protein structure. Peptide samples for circular dichroism (CD) were prepared at 0.1 mg/ml concentrations in either 1 mM NaCO3, pH 7.2 (Neutral) or in 100 mM MES, pH 5.5 (Acid). In spectra recorded with TFE, the TFE was present as 45% of solution volume. CD spectra were recorded from 300-180 nm with 0.5 nm steps with a pathlength of 0.1 cm and at 4°C. Final values were determined using the average of 15 spectra which were correlated with baseline spectra of buffer samples. A characteristic alpha helical spectrum was apparent for the peptide when placed in TFE with a positive peak at 195 nm (Θ = +43000) and a second minimum peak at 210 nm (Θ = -25000).
We thank Drs. Robert Garry, Ronald Luftig and Nicolas Bazan for their suggestions and encouragement, and Ms. Leonita G. Liu for help in preparing illustrations. This work was supported by grants from the U.S. National Institute of Dental Research DE 10862 (W.R.G.), an NIH training grant AI 07354 (C.D.) and an Emerging Research Center Grant from the NIH AI 39808 (M.J.B.).
- Wilson IA, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC: Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at 3 A resolution. Nature. 1981, 289: 366-373.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lambert DM, Barney S, Lambert AL, Guthrie K, Medinas R, Davis DE, Bucy T, Erickson J, Merutka G, Petteway SR: Peptides from conserved regions of paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins are potent inhibitors of viral fusion. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 1996, 93: 2186-2191. 10.1073/pnas.93.5.2186.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gallaher WR, Ball JM, Garry RF, Griffin MC, Montelaro RC: A general model for the transmembrane proteins of HIV and other retroviruses. AIDS Res Human Retroviruses. 1989, 5: 431-440.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gallaher WR: Similar structural models of the transmembrane proteins of Ebola and avian sarcoma viruses. Cell. 1996, 85: 477-478.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weissenhorn W, Dessen A, Calder LJ, Harrison SC, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC: Structural basis for membrane fusion by enveloped viruses. Molecular Membrane Biology. 1999, 16: 3-9. 10.1080/096876899294706.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weissenhorn W, Carfi A, Lee KH, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC: Crystal structure of the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain. Molecular Cell. 1998, 2: 605-616.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wright KE, Spiro RC, Burns JW, Buchmeier MJ: Post-translational processing of the glycoproteins of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Virology. 1990, 177: 175-83.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burns JW, Buchmeier MJ: Protein-protein interactions in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Virology. 1991, 183: 620-629.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Di Simone C, Buchmeier MJ: Kinetics and pH dependence of acid-induced structural changes in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein complex. Virology. 1995, 209: 3-9. 10.1006/viro.1995.1225.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borrow P, Oldstone MB: Characterization of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-binding protein(s): a candidate cellular receptor for the virus. J Virol. 1992, 66: 7270-7281.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frame JD, Baldwin JM, Gocke DJ, Troup JM: Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa. I. Clinical description and pathological findings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1970, 19: 670-676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peters CJ, Buchmeier MJ, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG: Arenaviruses (Chapter 50). In Virology; third Edition. Edited by B.N. Fields, et al. Lippincott-Raven,. 1996, 1521-1551.Google Scholar
- Di Simone C, Zandonatti MA, Buchmeier MJ: Acidic pH triggers LCMV membrane fusion activity and conformational change in the glycoprotein spike. Virology. 1994, 198: 455-465. 10.1006/viro.1994.1057.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lenz O, ter Meulen J, Feldmann H, Klenk H-D, Garten W: Identification of a novel consensus sequence at the cleavage site of the Lassa virus glycoprotein. J. Virol. 2000, 74: 11418-11421. 10.1128/JVI.74.23.11418-11421.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chambers P, Pringle CR, Easton AJ: Heptad repeat sequences are located adjacent to hydrophobic regions in several types of virus fusion glycoproteins. J Gen Virol. 1990, 71: 3075-3080.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burns J.W., Buchmeier M.J.: Glycoproteins of the Arenaviruses. In The Arenaviridae. Edited by M.S. Salvato. Plenum Press,. 1993, 17-35.Google Scholar
- Wild C, Dubay JW, Greenwell T, Baird T, Oas TG, McDanal C, Hunter E, Matthews T: Propensity for a leucine zipper-like domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 to form oligomers correlates with a role in virus-induced fusion rather than assembly of the glycoprotein complex. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 1994, 91: 12676-12680.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weber EL, Buchmeier MJ: Fine mapping of a peptide sequence containing an antigenic site conserved among arenaviruses. Virology. 1988, 164: 30-38.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gnann JW, Nelson JA, Oldstone MB: Fine mapping of an immunodominant domain in the transmembrane glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 1987, 61: 2639-2641.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wild C, Greenwell T, Matthews T: A synthetic peptide from HIV-1 gp41 is a potent inhibitor of virus-mediated cell-cell fusion. AIDS Res Human Retroviruses. 1993, 9: 1051-1053.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gallaher WR, Ball JM, Garry RF, Martin-Amedee AM, Montelaro RC: A general model for the surface glycoproteins of HIV and other retroviruses. AIDS Res Human Retroviruses. 1995, 11: 191-202.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lupas A, Van Dyke M, Stock J: Predicting coiled coils from protein sequences. Science. 1991, 252: 1162-1164.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.