Restricted changes in major surface protein-2 (msp2) transcription after prolonged in vitro passage of Anaplasma phagocytophilum
© Scorpio et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004
Received: 03 November 2003
Accepted: 08 January 2004
Published: 08 January 2004
Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains often vary in Msp2 expression, a situation assumed to be related to immune evasion. However, Msp2 is also an adhesin, and little is known about the role of endogenous msp2 transcriptional changes in the absence of immune selection. Thus, Msp2 profiles and msp2 transcripts of low passage A. phagocytophilum Webster strain, initially comprised of a single abundant msp2 transcript, were re-examined after ≥ 20 in vitro passages without immune selection.
Using an Msp2 monoclonal antibody, immunoblots revealed an unchanged dominant band and several weak bands that appeared with passage. Similarly, msp2 transcript diversity changed, with a decrease in the initially abundant low passage transcript and appearance of a newly abundant and several minor msp2 transcripts with high passage. BLASTN search of the A. phagocytophilum HZ strain genome revealed ≥ 52 msp2 paralogs.
Msp2 expression and msp2 transcription modulate even without immune selective pressures. However, the limited diversity of msp2 transcripts in the absence of immune pressure suggests selection for Msp2 by specific functions beyond that of immune evasion, in spite of a large genomic reservoir for Msp2 diversity.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (formerly named HGE) and granulocytic anaplasmosis in animals. Human, horse, and canine infections are acute and self-limiting [1–3], whereas ruminant and rodent infections may persist [4, 5]. As for Anaplasma marginale, A. phagocytophilum strains from different geographic regions are antigenically variable , and the emergence of antigenic variants in vitro and in vivo suggests a role in immune evasion and persistent infection [7–10]. Antigenic variability results from differential expression of immunodominant surface proteins (Msp2, p44, 44 kDA), encoded by a multigene family [10–12]. Msp2 expression is polymorphic in vitro, in mice, and in ticks [13, 14]. Based in part on these investigations where changes were characterized under immune selective pressure or in poorly defined polyclonal populations in vitro, the prevailing opinion is that antigenic diversity is generated as a mechanism for immune evasion. However, among 18 unique msp2 paralogs detected in uncloned low passage A. phagocytophilum Webster strain, only 1 of 7 transcripts was dominant in number . With the discovery that Msp2 is an A. phagocytophilum adhesin for granulocytes, we hypothesized that Msp2s are also selected by non-immunological processes based on fitness for specific niches, such as growth in mammalian granulocytes. Before such hypotheses can be addressed, it is important to characterize and monitor endogenous changes in msp2 transcription in the absence of selective pressures under defined limits of in vitro propagation. Thus, msp2 transcripts of A. phagocytophilum Webster strain were investigated after 20 in vitro passages, compared to transcripts characterized after only 7 in vitro passages.
RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of msp2 transcript amplicons
The origin and characterization of new msp2 transcripts
Translation of hypervariable region sequences revealed a similar level of divergence in multiple positions except for a high degree of conservation in only 2 positions. Compared with the amino acid sequence of A. phagocytophilum GenBank accession no. AF029323 , all hypervariable domains had a conserved Cys at residue 124, and a conserved consensus Lys-Asp-Trp-Pro-Thr-Ser/Gly motif at residues 148 through 153, as described by Zhi . The latter residues were preceded by a predicted helical structure in 17 of 22 paralogs. The C-terminus of each translated amplicon had 2 tandem helical hydrophobic domains, and the N-terminus of each shared 2 consecutive helical domains and 2 tandem beta strand-like elements.
Estimation of msp2 content in A. phagocytophilum strain HZ incomplete genome sequences
A TBLASTN search against the A. phagocytophilum strain HZ genomic DNA sequences detected 219 homologous segments in 19 different contigs with E-values <0.001. The average and median sizes of contigs were 62 and 20 kb, respectively. From the TBLASTN output, 86 translated amino acid sequences ≥ 100 residues and uninterrupted by in-frame stop codons were extracted. Because msp2 has conserved 5' and 3' ends, some segments might have originated from one gene; thus, one from each sequence pair within 1 kb on the same strand of a single contig was removed leaving 57 sequences. One from each sequence pair that had identical amino acid sequences was also removed, resulting in 54 remaining segments. The average pair-wise sequence identity among these was 59%, similar to that of A. phagocytophilum Webster strain paralogs. Finally, BLASTP searches carried out against the SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL non-redundant sequence database  confirmed that 52 of 54 sequences were best-matched with known Msp2s. One was best-matched to Ehrlichia chaffeensis major outer membrane protein OMP-1A (TrEMBL accession no. O52102) and the other to Anaplasma ovis major surface protein 4 (Q8KWV5).
Msp2 is the immunodominant protein expressed in both A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. The encoding msp2 s are believed to allow the generation of antigenic variation and persistence in reservoir hosts [8–12, 15, 17, 18]. In addition, A. phagocytophilum Msp2s are heterogeneous among geographically distinct isolates  and this diversity may be important for infection in reservoirs such as rodents, ruminants, and cervids [4, 5, 19]. The mechanisms of persistence of Anaplasma marginale and many other microorganisms involve gene recombination or conversion and expression of new antigens that allow immune evasion [20–24]. However, another hypothesis is whether a non-immunologic functional role for individual msp2 paralogs influences selection when expressed in specific niches such as the mammalian or tick host [13, 14]. Experiments conducted under immune selective pressure, such as in vivo mammalian infection, or with cultures of undefined bacterial clonality are unable to provide supportive data for such alternate roles. Previous characterization showed that very low passage strains of A. phagocytophilum possess a single abundant msp2 transcript , which coupled with new data confirming a single expression site for A. phagocytophilum , indicates a relative uniform clonal population. If immune selection is the driving force for Msp2 diversity, propagation in vitro in the absence of immune pressure should allow the generation of multiple Msp2 variants. Thus, starting with a low passage, nearly clonal strain of A. phagocytophilum, changes in endogenous msp2 transcription were analyzed when immune selection was absent.
The identification of 4 additional unique msp2 paralog transcripts in A. phagocytophilum Webster strain after prolonged in vitro passage without immune selection suggests a role for either combinatorial recombination or gene conversion, as described for A. marginale . However, all 4 new msp2 genes were identified in the genome of clonal low passage A. phagocytophilum excluding the possibility that each was generated by a new recombination event. Although proof of a role for A. phagocytophilum msp2 s in immune evasion is lacking, changing Msp2 expression does alter antigenicity, and could contribute to evasion [13, 14]. However, only minimal antigenic changes were observed, and these could equally reflect structural changes anticipated to occur with selection of alternate adhesins.
It is strongly suspected that transcription of msp2 occurs from perhaps a single site in the chromosome, and that msp2 transcriptional changes imply at minimum, emergence of new populations after gene conversion [7, 8, 25]. The incomplete A. phagocytophilum strain HZ genome revealed more than 50 msp2 paralogs and/or pseudogenes of over 100 amino acids. This suggests that a vast capacity for Msp2 diversity is already "hard-wired" and that only simple gene conversion into a transcriptional site is required. Regardless, these findings illustrate that even without immune pressure, spontaneous genetic changes can accrue, but do so in a very limited fashion. It may be that human infection selects for certain Msp2s, explaining the abundance of a single or small number of msp2 transcripts in human HL-60 cell cultures, whereas other Msp2s may more efficiently bind tick cells or neutrophils in reservoir animals. In partial support of this concept, Carlyon et al. recently described an alternative murine neutrophil ligand that differs in scaffold protein from platelet selectin glycoprotein-1 (PSGL-1) on human neutrophils .
What evidence is there that Msp2 has a role other than in immune evasion? Although msp2 transcript diversity increases with mammalian cell passage, the effects are not neutral. Given the implied requirement for frequent emergence of variation to resist mammalian immunity , one might predict that a larger diversity and a more uniform frequency of msp2 transcripts would appear. Instead, prolonged passage is associated with the appearance of only 2 major msp2 transcripts over 20 or more passages – an interval usually greater than 4 months of continuous in vitro propagation. Moreover, despite the relative lack of selective pressures, the absence of any transcripts that would indicate significant gene recombination suggests that msp2 s of individual strains are moderately stable, at least in vitro. Taken together, these data further suggest that some Msp2s have specific functions that are selected for by environmental conditions and niches. Indeed, both Zhi et al. and IJdo et al. have also demonstrated a restricted profile of msp2 transcripts under several conditions including tick infections [13, 14].
An important function of Msp2 may be to provide bacterial antigenic diversity wherein immune recognition of the abundant bacterial population is targeted. Antigenically diverse bacterial clones temporarily survive and contribute to reservoir persistence. However, the high level of expression, the conserved flanking regions with relative conservation of structure, and highly conserved residues within the hypervariable domain suggest the potential for other roles, such as cell adhesion [27–29]. Moreover, the possibility that changes in Msp2 expression are associated with changes in A. phagocytophilum pathogenicity has not been investigated. Low passage A. phagocytophilum Webster strain causes disease in horses similar to natural human infection, but prolonged in vitro propagation, which leads to changes in msp2 transcription and Msp2 expression, attenuates clinical signs in the horse model . The change in virulence may ultimately be unrelated to changes in Msp2, but as host immune response is the predominant correlate of histopathologic lesions and disease [31, 32], this hypothesis and the functions of specific Msp2s in various niches warrant further investigation.
Msp2 expression and msp2 transcription in A. phagocytophilum display limited diversity under nonimmune-selective conditions despite long intervals of passage, suggesting that Msp2 has other functions beyond generation of antigenic variation for immune evasion. With the recognition of its role in adhesion to host cells, Msp2 diversity could also be an important adaptation to alternate niches such as small mammal or cervid reservoir neutrophils or tick cells.
A. phagocytophilum in vitro cultivation and immunoblots
A. phagocytophilum (Webster strain) was propagated in HL-60 cells . Infected cells were harvested for nucleic acid preparation  and bacterial density gradient purification . Protein immunoblotting  used Msp2 monoclonal antibody 20B4 that reacts with all A. phagocytophilum strains tested. Webster strain in vitro passage 20 msp2 RNAs were compared to those obtained at in vitro passage 7 . To demonstrate changes over prolonged passage, a sample of convenience that compared Msp2 expression at passage 17 with passage 23 was examined by protein immunoblotting. Cell cultures were harvested when >90% of cells were infected, and identical protein quantities were loaded onto SDS-PAGE gels for comparison.
PCR and RT-PCR
DNA was prepared from infected HL-60 cells using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). RNA was prepared from infected cells using the RNeasy Mini Kit and a QIAshredder (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Genomic DNA contamination was eliminated by the use of RNase-free DNase (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) during extraction and again after preparation of the final RNA. DNA and RNA concentrations of each preparation were determined.
msp2 hypervariable region primers to determine newly identified msp2 paralogs in low passage A. phagocytophilum genomic DNA.
msp2 transcript locus
Forward primer sequence (name)
Reverse primer sequence (name)
For RT-PCR, a one step PCR protocol using RT-Taq (SUPERSCRIPT One-Step RT-PCR, Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD) and 30 ng of RNA from infected cells was employed as per manufacturer's recommendations . DNA contamination in the RNA preparations was assessed by the same PCR method substituting Taq for RT-Taq polymerase. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining were again conducted to assess a 550-bp cDNA fragment.
Cloning and sequencing of PCR products
cDNA RT-PCR products were cloned into the pCR4-TOPO vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) by transformation into TOP 10 E. coli plated onto LB agar (50 μg/ml kanamycin). Plasmids from each of 64 colonies (Wizard Plus Minipreps DNA purification System, Promega, Madison, WI) were assessed for insert size after Eco RI digestion.
Sequence analysis of recombinant clones
Plasmid inserts were cycle-sequenced using the Big Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and was performed  with 175 ng of plasmid DNA and M13 forward and reverse primers. Products were purified using Centrisep spin columns (Princeton Separations, Adelphia, NJ) before sequence determination (ABI Model 377, Foster City, CA), assembly (Assemgel, PCGENE, Intelligenetics, Mountain View, CA), alignment (CLUSTALW v1.4) , and visualization of phylodendograms (TreeView v1.6.1) . Some nucleotide comparisons used BLASTN analysis . Translated protein secondary structure was predicted with NNPREDICT http://www.cmpharm.ucsf.edu/cgi-bin/nnpredict.pl.
Analysis of msp2 in A. phagocytophilum strain HZ incomplete genome sequences
Using the amino acid sequence of A. phagocytophilum Msp2 (GenBank accession no. AF037599) as query, the A. phagocytophilum strain HZ unfinished genomic sequences were searched using TBLASTN on the Institute for Genomic Research server (TIGR; http://www.tigr.org). The shotgun phase of sequencing is complete, and as of February 6, 2003, the data included 54 contigs totaling 1,507,831 bp. BLASTP searches against the SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL non-redundant sequence database  were used to confirm best matches for TBLASTN-identified sequence segments.
Nucleotide sequence accession numbers
The nucleotide sequences of the 4 newly identified Webster strain msp2 hypervariable regions are deposited in GenBank under accession numbers: AY253529, AY253530, AY253531, AY253532.
DGS performed molecular biological techniques and sequence analysis, alignment, interpretation, and manuscript preparation. KC performed some amplification and cloning reactions and assisted in initial design. HO performed bioinformatics manipulations to assess the genomic content of the A. phagocytophilum HZ strain. JHP assisted in design of the study and assisted with molecular techniques. JSD was responsible for overall design of the study, analysis and interpretation of data, and assisted with manuscript preparation.
Supported in part by grant no. RO1-AI44102 from the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (JSD) and by National Research Service Award training grant no. RR07002 from the Public Health Service (DGS and KC).
We thank Kristin Asanovich and Jen Walls for superb technical assistance with cultivation and protein immunoblot analysis, Surekha Patil for help with preparation of sequencing reactions, the sequencing team in the Molecular Microbiology laboratory of The Johns Hopkins Hospital for help with sequence analyses, and J.S. Bakken, M.D., Gary Wormser, M.D., and John Madigan, D.V.M., for contributions of clinical samples for microbial isolation. Preliminary sequence data of the unfinished genome sequences of A. phagocytophilum strain HZ was obtained with permission from The Institute for Genomic Research website at http://www.tigr.org. Sequencing of A. phagocytophilum was accomplished with support from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Ohio State University.
- Greig B, Asanovich KM, Armstrong PJ, Dumler JS: Geographic, clinical, serologic, and molecular evidence of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, a likely zoonotic disease, in Minnesota and Wisconsin dogs. J Clin Microbiol. 1996, 34: 44-48.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Madigan JE, Gribble D: Equine ehrlichiosis in northern California: 49 cases (1968–1981). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1987, 190: 445-448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bakken JS, Krueth J, Wilson-Nordskog C, Tilden RL, Asanovich K, Dumler JS: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. JAMA. 1996, 275: 199-205. 10.1001/jama.275.3.199.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stafford KC, Massung RF, Magnarelli LA, IJdo JW, Anderson JF: Infection with agents of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, and babesiosis in wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Connecticut. J Clin Microbiol. 1999, 37: 2887-2892.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stuen S, Engvall EO, Artursson K: Persistence of Ehrlichia phagocytophila infection in lambs in relation to clinical parameters and antibody responses. Vet Rec. 1998, 143: 553-555.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asanovich KM, Bakken JS, Madigan JE, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Wormser GP, Dumler JS: Antigenic diversity of granulocytic Ehrlichia species isolates from humans in Wisconsin, New York, and a California horse. J Infect Dis. 1997, 176: 1029-1034.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barbet AF, Lundgren A, Yi J, Rurangirwa FR, Palmer GH: Antigenic variation of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale by expression of MSP2 sequence mosaics. Infect Immun. 2000, 68: 6133-6138. 10.1128/IAI.68.11.6133-6138.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brayton KA, Knowles DP, McGuire TC, Palmer GH: Efficient use of a small genome to generate antigenic diversity in tick-borne ehrlichial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98: 4130-4135. 10.1073/pnas.071056298.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- French DM, Brown WC, Palmer GH: Emergence of Anaplasma marginale antigenic variants during persistent rickettsemia. Infect Immun. 1999, 67: 5834-5840.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murphy CL, Storey JR, Recchia J, Doros-Richert LA, Gingrich-Baker C, Munroe K, Bakken JS, Coughlin RT, Beltz GA: Major antigenic proteins of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis are encoded by members of a multigene family. Infect Immun. 1998, 66: 3711-3718.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- IJdo JW, Zhang Y, Magnarelli LA, Fikrig E: Cloning of the gene encoding the 44-kilodalton antigen of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and characterization of the humoral response. Infect Immun. 1998, 66: 3264-3269.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhi N, Ohasi N, Rikihisa Y: Multiple p44 genes encoding major membrane proteins are expressed in human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274: 17828-17836. 10.1074/jbc.274.25.17828.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- IJdo JW, Wu C, Telford SR, Fikrig E: Differential expression of the p44 gene family in the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Infect Immun. 2002, 70: 5295-5298. 10.1128/IAI.70.9.5295-5298.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhi N, Ohashi N, Tajima T, Mott J, Stich RW, Grover D, Telford SR, Lin Q, Rikihisa Y: Transcript heterogeneity of the p44 multigene family in a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent transmitted by ticks. Infect Immun. 2002, 70: 1175-1184. 10.1128/IAI.70.3.1175-1184.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caspersen K, Park J, Patil S, Dumler JS: Genetic variability and stability of Anaplasma phagocytophila msp2 (p44). Infect Immun. 2002, 70: 1230-1234. 10.1128/IAI.70.3.1230-1234.2002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boeckmann B, Bairoch A, Apweiler R, Blatter MC, Estreicher A, Gasteiger E, Martin MJ, Michoud K, O'Donovan C, Phan I, Pilbout S, Schneider M: The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase and its supplement TrEMBL in 2003. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31: 365-370. 10.1093/nar/gkg095.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palmer GH, Rurangirwa FR, McElwain TF: Strain composition of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale within persistently infected cattle, a mammalian reservoir for tick transmission. J Clin Microbiol. 2001, 39: 631-635. 10.1128/JCM.39.2.631-635.2001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rurangirwa FR, Stiller D, Palmer GH: Strain diversity in major surface protein 2 during tick transmission of Anaplasma marginale. Infect Immun. 2000, 68: 3023-3027. 10.1128/IAI.68.5.3023-3027.2000.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walls JJ, Asanovich KM, Bakken JS, Dumler JS: Serologic evidence of a natural infection of white-tailed deer with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin and Maryland. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1998, 5: 762-765.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barbour AG, Restrepo BI: Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000, 6: 449-457.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brayton KA, Palmer GH, Lundgren A, Yi J, Barbet AF: Antigenic variation of Anaplasma marginale msp2 occurs by combinatorial gene conversion. Mol Microbiol. 2002, 43: 1151-1159. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.02792.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reddy GR, Sulsona CR, Barbet AF, Mahan SM, Burridge MJ, Alleman AR: Molecular characterization of a 28 kDa surface antigen gene family of the tribe Ehrlichieae. Biophys Res Comm. 1998, 247: 636-643. 10.1006/bbrc.1998.8844.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reddy GR, Streck CP: Variation in the 28 kDa surface antigen protein multigene locus of isolates of the emerging disease agent Ehrlichia chaffeensis suggests that it plays a role in immune evasion. Mol Cell Biol Res Comm. 1999, 1: 167-175. 10.1006/mcbr.1999.0133.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor-Robinson A, Phillips RS: Protective CD4+ T-cell lines raised against Plasmodium chabaudi show characteristics of either Th1 or Th2 cells. Parasit Immunol. 1993, 15: 301-310.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barbet AF, Meeus PF, Belanger M, Bowie MV, Yi J, Lundgren AM, Alleman AR, Wong SJ, Chu FK, Munderloh UG, Jauron SD: Expression of multiple outer membrane protein sequence variants from a single genomic locus of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Infect Immun. 2003, 71: 1706-1718. 10.1128/IAI.71.4.1706-1718.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carlyon JA, Akkoyunlu M, Xia L, Yago T, Wang T, Cummings RD, McEver RP, Fikrig E: Murine neutrophils require α1,3-fucosylation but not PSGL-1 for productive infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood. 2003, 102: 3387-3395. 10.1182/blood-2003-02-0621.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGarey DJ, Allred DR: Characterization of hemagglutinating components on the Anaplasma marginale initial body surface and identification of possible adhesins. Infect Immun. 1994, 62: 4587-4593.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGarey DJ, Barbet AF, Palmer GH, McGuire TC, Allred DR: Putative adhesins of Anaplasma marginale: major surface polypeptides 1a and 1b. Infect Immun. 1994, 62: 4594-4601.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park J, Choi KS, Dumler JS: Major surface protein 2 of Anaplasma phagocytophilum facilitates adherence to granulocytes. Infect Immun. 2003, 71: 4018-4025. 10.1128/IAI.71.7.4018-4025.2003.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pusterla N, Madigan JE, Asanovich KM, Chae J-S, DeRock E, Berger-Pusterla J, Lutz H, Dumler JS: Experimental transmission of human granulocytic ehrlichia agent derived from high and low passage cell culture in horses. J Clin Microbiol. 2000, 38: 1276-1278.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Foley JE, Leutenegger CM, Dumler JS, Pedersen NC, Madigan JE: Evidence for modulated immune response to Anaplasma phagocytophila sensu lato in cats with FIV-induced immunosuppression. Comp Immunol Micobiol Infect Dis. 2003, 26: 103-113. 10.1016/S0147-9571(02)00023-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martin ME, Caspersen K, Dumler JS: Immunopathology and ehrlichial propagation are regulated by interferon-γ and interleukin-10 in a murine model of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Am J Pathol. 2001, 158: 1881-1888.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ: CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994, 22: 4673-4680.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Page RDM: TREEVIEW: An application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci. 1996, 12: 357-358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ: Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol. 1990, 215: 403-410. 10.1006/jmbi.1990.9999.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kneller DG, Cohen FE, Langridge R: Improvements in protein secondary structure prediction by an enhanced neural network. J Mol Biol. 1990, 214: 171-182.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.