Identification and evaluation of the role of the manganese efflux protein in Deinococcus radiodurans
© Sun et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 9 June 2010
Accepted: 14 December 2010
Published: 14 December 2010
Deinococcus radiodurans accumulates high levels of manganese ions, and this is believed to be correlated with the radiation resistance ability of this microorganism. However, the maintenance of manganese ion homeostasis in D. radiodurans remains to be investigated.
In this study, we identified the manganese efflux protein (MntE) in D. radiodurans. The null mutant of mntE was more sensitive than the wild-type strain to manganese ions, and the growth of the mntE mutant was delayed in manganese-supplemented media. Furthermore, there was a substantial increase in the in vivo concentration of manganese ions. Consistent with these characteristics, the mntE mutant was more resistant to H2O2, ultraviolet rays, and γ-radiation. The intracellular protein oxidation (carbonylation) level of the mutant strain was remarkably lower than that of the wild-type strain.
Our results indicated that dr1236 is indeed a mntE homologue and is indispensable for maintaining manganese homeostasis in D. radiodurans. The data also provide additional evidence for the involvement of intracellular manganese ions in the radiation resistance of D. radiodurans.
Deinococcus radiodurans is an extreme bacterium known for its resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, oxidative stress, and desiccation [1, 2]. It has been reported that D. radiodurans can recover from exposure to γ-radiation at 15 kGy, a dose lethal to most life forms. IR can directly damage biomacromolecules and can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can indirectly attack both proteins and DNA [3, 4]. Therefore, cellular defense against ROS-induced protein and DNA damage is proposed to be important to the radiation resistance of D. radiodurans.
Manganese plays an important role in the antioxidant systems of bacteria and can relieve the phenotypic deficit of sod-null Escherichia coli. Interestingly, Daly and coworkers found that the Mn/Fe ratio of most IR-resistant bacteria is higher than that of IR-sensitive bacteria. The group also found that D. radiodurans grown in manganese-deficient medium was relatively more sensitive to IR than the bacteria grown in manganese-containing medium, suggesting that the accumulation of intracellular manganese ions can protect proteins from ROS-induced damage and can help in the survival of D. radiodurans in extreme environments [5, 7, 8].
Although manganese can improve cellular ROS resistance, excess manganese is toxic to cells. Thus, maintenance of the intracellular Mn concentration homoeostasis is a challenge. In bacteria, two main classes of manganese transporters have been identified--Nramp H+-Mn2+ transporters and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) Mn2+ permeases . Recently, a manganese efflux system was identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and this was found to play important roles in host pathogenesis and H2O2 resistance . Many genes involved in the maintenance of manganese ion homeostasis have been reported in D. radiodurans, such as dr1709, dr2523, dr2539, and dr0615. Therefore, it would be very interesting to determine whether D. radiodurans possesses a similar manganese efflux system.
In this study, we identified a manganese efflux gene (dr1236) in D. radiodurans and demonstrated that it plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of intracellular Mn. The null mutant mntE- was highly sensitive to manganese ions. When the intracellular level of manganese ions was increased by mutating dr1236, the mutant showed clearly enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. Our results also demonstrated that increased intracellular Mn levels could substantially suppress protein oxidation (carbonylation) in D. radiodurans exposed to H2O2, indicating that manganese transport and regulation may be involved in the cellular resistance of D. radiodurans to oxidative stress.
Results and discussion
D. radiodurans encodes a putative manganese efflux protein
mntE is essential for the manganese resistance of D. radiodurans
To further investigate the influence of manganese ions on the mntE- mutant, different concentrations of manganese ions were added to TGY medium, and the growth of the mntE - mutant was measured (Figure 3C). The results showed that in comparison with R1, the growth of the mntE- mutant was clearly delayed in the presence of low concentrations of manganese ions. When the manganese concentration increased, the growth defect phenotype became more pronounced. This phenotype is similar to that observed in Rosch's study in which the growth of S. pneumoniae having a disrupted calcium efflux system was more severely inhibited at higher calcium concentrations .
The mntE- mutant shows high intracellular manganese concentrations
The mntE- mutant shows higher resistance to γ-radiation, UV, and oxidative
The mntE- mutant shows a lower protein oxidation level under oxidative stress
Although it is known that the Mn/Fe ratio of D. radiodurans is higher than that of other bacteria, little is known regarding the maintenance of the intracellular manganese ion level in this bacterium. So far, only one manganese efflux system has been identified in bacteria , and it is still unknown whether this system exists in D. radiodurans. In this study, we identified a MntE homolog in D. radiodurans. As expected, our results showed that the intracellular manganese ion level was almost four-fold higher in the mutant than in R1. Furthermore, we also found that the oxidative level of mntE- proteins decreased to almost one half that of R1. On the other hand, the data also revealed that manganese accumulation is dangerous to the mntE- mutant. Based on these data, we conclude that dr1236 is indeed a mntE homologue and is indispensable for maintaining manganese homeostasis in D. radiodurans. The results provide additional evidence that intracellular manganese ions are involved in the radiation resistance of D. radiodurans. However, because the intracellular Mn/Fe ratio and the Mn concentration of mntE- both increased in this study, we could not clarify whether the Mn/Fe ratio or the Mn concentration is more important for stress tolerance. Therefore, global analysis of the regulation of the intracellular manganese ion level is necessary in further studies.
Strains and media
Strains and plasmids used in this study
Strain or plasmid
Reference or resource
E. coli DH5α
hsdR17 recA1 endA1 lacZΔM15
D. radiodurans R1
As R1, but mnE::aadA
As mntE- mnE::aadA(pME mntE Dr +)
TA cloning vector
E. coli-D. radiodurans shuttle vector carrying D. radiodurans groEL promoter
pRADK derivative expressing D. radiodurans mntE
Disruption and complementation of dr1236
Primers used in this study
(5' → 3')
Construction of the mntE- mutant
Complementation of the mntE- mutant
A complementary plasmid was constructed and transformed into the mntE- mutant as described previously . Briefly, the dr1236 gene with the Nde I and Bam HI sites was amplified with primers ME5/ME6. The PCR product was ligated to the pMD18-T simple vector (Takara, JP), and the product was designated pMDmntE. After digestion with Nde I and Bam HI, the target gene MntE was ligated to Nde I- and Bam HI-predigested pRADK. The complementation plasmid was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analyses and transformed into the mntE- strain.
Cation sensitivity assay
Cation sensitivity assays were carried out as described previously . Solutions (1 M) of manganese chloride, manganese sulfate, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, cobalt (II) chloride, copper chloride, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulfate (Sigma) were prepared in milli-Q water and filter-sterilized by passing through 0.22-μm filters. Cells grown to the early stationary phase in TGY broth were plated on TGY plates and overlaid with 5-mm sterile filter discs containing 10 μL of various cation solutions. The plates were incubated for three days, and the inhibition zone of each disc was measured.
To measure the growth of mntE- and R1, 1 × 105 cfu mL-1 were grown in TGY supplemented with increasing concentrations of MnCl2. The OD600 value was measured 12 h post incubation (mean ± SD of three experiments).
Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) assay
For the ICP-MS assays , the cells were cultured in TGY broth that had been pretreated with Chelex (Sigma) to remove any cations and supplemented with 50 μM manganese, 10 μM ferric chloride, 100 mM magnesium, or 100 mM calcium chloride. Cells (OD600 = 0.6-0.8) were harvested by centrifugation, washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 10 mM EDTA, and rinsed three times with PBS without EDTA. Cells (1/10 of the total volume) were withdrawn to measure the dry weight, and the remaining cells were treated with nitric acid and used for the ICP-MS assay.
Survival curves of the mntE- mutant and R1
R1 and mntE- cells were cultured in TGY broth with or without 50 μM manganese to OD600 = 1.0, centrifuged, and then resuspended in phosphate buffer. For the γ-irradiation treatment, the suspension was irradiated with different doses of 60Co γ-radiation for 1 h on ice. After the irradiation treatment, the cells were plated on TGY plates and incubated at 30°C for three days. The colonies were then counted. For the UV treatment, the cells were plated on TGY plates and exposed to different doses of UV radiation at 254 nm. For the H2O2 treatment, the cultures were treated with different concentrations of H2O2 for 30 min and then plated on TGY plates.
Protein carbonylation assay
Cells grown to OD600 = 0.5 were treated with H2O2 (30 mM), harvested, and resuspended in PBS containing 1% (by volume) β-mercaptoethanol and 1 mM phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The cells were disrupted by sonication, and the cell-free extracts were used for the protein carbonylation assay. The protein concentrations were determined by the Bradford method. The cell-free extracts were incubated with 400 μL of 10 mM 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) in 2 M HCl for 2 h in the dark. After precipitation with ice-chilled 10% trichloroacetic acid (TCA), the precipitated proteins were washed three times with 50% ethyl acetate in ethanol. The decolorized precipitates were evaporated and dissolved in 1 mL of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. The solution was centrifuged, and the absorbance of the supernatant was determined at 370 nm against a protein control that had been processed in parallel but with 2 M HCl instead of DNPH. The protein carbonyl content is defined as mM/mg protein.
Student's t-test was used to assess the significance between results, and p < 0.05 was considered as significant.
This work was supported by a grant from the National Basic Research Program of China (2007CB707804), a grant from the National Hi-Tech Development Program (2007AA021305), a key project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30830006), a major scientific and technological project for significant new drugs creation (2009ZXJ09001-034), a major project for genetically modified organisms breeding (2009ZX08009-075B), a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30870035), the project "Application of Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture" from the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (200803034), and a grant from Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Y3090032).
- Rainey FA, Nobre MF, Schumann P, Stackebrandt E, da Costa MS: Phylogenetic diversity of the deinococci as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1997, 47: 510-514. 10.1099/00207713-47-2-510.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Battista JR, Earl AM, Park MJ: Why is Deinococcus radiodurans so resistant to ionizing radiation?. Trends Microbiol. 1999, 7: 362-365. 10.1016/S0966-842X(99)01566-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goswami M, Mangoli SH, Jawali N: Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the action of ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006, 50: 949-954. 10.1128/AAC.50.3.949-954.2006.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Repine JE, Pfenninger OW, Talmage DW, Berger EM, Pettijohn DE: Dimethyl sulfoxide prevents DNA nicking mediated by ionizing radiation or iron/hydrogen peroxide-generated hydroxyl radical. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1981, 78: 1001-1003. 10.1073/pnas.78.2.1001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Daly MJ: A new perspective on radiation resistance based on Deinococcus radiodurans. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009, 7: 237-245. 10.1038/nrmicro2073.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Maghrebi M, Fridovich I, Benov L: Manganese supplementation relieves the phenotypic deficits seen in superoxide-dismutase-null Escherichia coli. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002, 402: 104-109. 10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00065-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Daly MJ, Gaidamakova EK, Matrosova VY, Vasilenko A, Zhai M, Leapman RD, Lai B, Ravel B, Li S-MW, Kemner KM, Fredrickson JK: Protein Oxidation Implicated as the Primary Determinant of Bacterial Radioresistance. PLoS Biol. 2007, 5: e92-10.1371/journal.pbio.0050092.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Daly MJ, Gaidamakova EK, Matrosova VY, Vasilenko A, Zhai M, Venkateswaran A, Hess M, Omelchenko MV, Kostandarithes HM, Makarova KS: Accumulation of Mn(II) in Deinococcus radiodurans facilitates gamma-radiation resistance. Science. 2004, 306: 1025-1028. 10.1126/science.1103185.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Papp-Wallace KM, Maguire ME: Manganese transport and the role of manganese in virulence. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2006, 60: 187-209. 10.1146/annurev.micro.60.080805.142149.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosch JW, Gao G, Ridout G, Wang YD, Tuomanen EI: Role of the manganese efflux system mntE for signalling and pathogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol. 2009, 72: 12-25. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06638.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang S, Shu H, Li Z, Wang Y, Chen L, Hua Y, Qin G: Disruption of manganese ions [Mn(II)] transporter genes DR1709 or DR2523 in extremely radio-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2009, 49: 438-444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen H, Wu R, Xu G, Fang X, Qiu X, Guo H, Tian B, Hua Y: DR2539 is a novel DtxR-like regulator of Mn/Fe ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzyme in Deinococcus radiodurans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010, 396: 413-418. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.106.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen H, Xu G, Zhao Y, Tian B, Lu H, Yu X, Xu Z, Ying N, Hu S, Hua Y: A novel OxyR sensor and regulator of hydrogen peroxide stress with one cysteine residue in Deinococcus radiodurans. PLoS One. 2008, 3: e1602-10.1371/journal.pone.0001602.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haney CJ, Grass G, Franke S, Rensing C: New developments in the understanding of the cation diffusion facilitator family. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005, 32: 215-226. 10.1007/s10295-005-0224-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kehres DG, Maguire ME: Emerging themes in manganese transport, biochemistry and pathogenesis in bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003, 27: 263-290. 10.1016/S0168-6445(03)00052-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kloosterman TG, van der Kooi-Pol MM, Bijlsma JJ, Kuipers OP: The novel transcriptional regulator SczA mediates protection against Zn2+ stress by activation of the Zn2+-resistance gene czcD in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol. 2007, 65: 1049-1063. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05849.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McAllister LJ, Tseng HJ, Ogunniyi AD, Jennings MP, McEwan AG, Paton JC: Molecular analysis of the psa permease complex of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol. 2004, 53: 889-901. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2004.04164.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosch JW, Sublett J, Gao G, Wang YD, Tuomanen EI: Calcium efflux is essential for bacterial survival in the eukaryotic host. Mol Microbiol. 2008, 70: 435-444. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06425.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sukhi SS, Shashidhar R, Kumar SA, Bandekar JR: Radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 with respect to growth phase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009, 297: 49-53. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01652.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shashidhar R, Kumar SA, Misra HS, Bandekar JR: Evaluation of the role of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems in the radiation resistance of Deinococcus. Can J Microbiol. 56: 195-201. 10.1139/W09-118.
- Blasius M, Shevelev I, Jolivet E, Sommer S, Hubscher U: DNA polymerase X from Deinococcus radiodurans possesses a structure-modulated 3'--> 5' exonuclease activity involved in radioresistance. Mol Microbiol. 2006, 60: 165-176. 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05077.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hua S, Shenghe C, Zongwei L, Yanping W, Guangyong Q: Functional analysis of a putative transcriptional regulator gene dr2539 in Deinococcus radiodurans. AFR J MICROBIOL RES. 2010, 4: 515-522.Google Scholar
- Gao GJ, Lu HM, Huang LF, YJ H: Construction of DNA damage response gene pprI function deficient and function complementary mutants in Deinococcus radiodurans. Chin Sci Bull. 2005, 50: 311-316.Google Scholar
- Tanaka M, Narumi I, Funayama T, Kikuchi M, Watanabe H, Matsunaga T, Nikaido O, Yamamoto K: Characterization of pathways dependent on the uvsE, uvrA1, or uvrA2 gene product for UV resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans. J Bacteriol. 2005, 187: 3693-3697. 10.1128/JB.187.11.3693-3697.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hua Y, Narumi I, Gao G, Tian B, Satoh K, Kitayama S, Shen B: PprI: a general switch responsible for extreme radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003, 306: 354-360. 10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00965-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma JF, Ochsner UA, Klotz MG, Nanayakkara VK, Howell ML, Johnson Z, Posey JE, Vasil ML, Monaco JJ, Hassett DJ: Bacterioferritin A modulates catalase A (KatA) activity and resistance to hydrogen peroxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 1999, 181: 3730-3742.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang L, Hua X, Lu H, Gao G, Tian B, Shen B, Hua Y: Three tandem HRDC domains have synergistic effect on the RecQ functions in Deinococcus radiodurans. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007, 6: 167-176. 10.1016/j.dnarep.2006.09.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<url>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0</url>), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.