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  1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 is an important virus due to its use as a safe and effective human gene therapy vector and its negative association with certain malignancies. AAV, a dependo-parvovirus, aut...

    Authors: Bum Yong Kang, Hong You, Sarmistha Bandyopadhyay, Nalini Agrawal, Russell B Melchert, Alexei G Basnakian, Yong Liu and Paul L Hermonat
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:79
  2. Finding the amino acid mutations that affect the severity of influenza infections remains an open and challenging problem. Of special interest is better understanding how current circulating influenza strains ...

    Authors: Jonathan E Allen, Shea N Gardner, Elizabeth A Vitalis and Tom R Slezak
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:77
  3. Previous evaluation by different molecular and physiological assays of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) responses to heat shock exposure yielded a still fragmentary view of the mechanisms determining bacterial s...

    Authors: Bénédicte Fleury, William L Kelley, Daniel Lew, Friedrich Götz, Richard A Proctor and Pierre Vaudaux
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:76
  4. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that possess a type III secretion system to deliver proteins into the host cell during infection. Small molecule inhibitors of type III secretion in Yersinia, terme...

    Authors: Sandra Muschiol, Staffan Normark, Birgitta Henriques-Normark and Agathe Subtil
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:75
  5. Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment.

    Authors: Kelly Ishida, Juliany Cola Fernandes Rodrigues, Marcos Dornelas Ribeiro, Taíssa Vieira Machado Vila, Wanderley de Souza, Julio A Urbina, Celso Vataru Nakamura and Sonia Rozental
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:74
  6. The type III secretion systems (T3SSs) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) are important for invasion of epithelial cells during development of Salmonella-associated enterocolitis...

    Authors: Hao Gong, Jing Su, Yong Bai, Lu Miao, Kihoon Kim, Yonghua Yang, Fenyong Liu and Sangwei Lu
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:73
  7. The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP). These studies reinforced the presence of t...

    Authors: Tatum S Simonson, Richard T Okinaka, Bingxiang Wang, W Ryan Easterday, Lynn Huynh, Jana M U'Ren, Meghan Dukerich, Shaylan R Zanecki, Leo J Kenefic, Jodi Beaudry, James M Schupp, Talima Pearson, David M Wagner, Alex Hoffmaster, Jacques Ravel and Paul Keim
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:71
  8. In recent times photodynamic antimicrobial therapy has been used to efficiently destroy Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria using cationic porphyrins as photosensitizers. There is an increasing interest in this app...

    Authors: Eliana Alves, Liliana Costa, Carla MB Carvalho, João PC Tomé, Maria A Faustino, Maria GPMS Neves, Augusto C Tomé, José AS Cavaleiro, Ângela Cunha and Adelaide Almeida
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:70
  9. Fluoroquinolones are extensively used antibiotics that induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by trapping DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV on DNA. This effect is usually evaluated using biochemical or molecular...

    Authors: María Tamayo, Rebeca Santiso, Jaime Gosalvez, Germán Bou and José Luis Fernández
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:69
  10. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota is characterised by an abundance of uncultured bacteria most often assigned in phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Diversity of this microbiota, even though approa...

    Authors: Lotta Krogius-Kurikka, Anna Kassinen, Lars Paulin, Jukka Corander, Harri Mäkivuokko, Jarno Tuimala and Airi Palva
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:68
  11. Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4 is a N2-fixing filamentous nonheterocystous strain that contains two NiFe-hydrogenases: an uptake (encoded by hupSL) and a bidirectional enzyme (encoded by hoxEFUYH). The biosynthesi...

    Authors: Daniela Ferreira, Filipe Pinto, Pedro Moradas-Ferreira, Marta V Mendes and Paula Tamagnini
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:67
  12. Brucellosis is an important zoonosis caused by the genus Brucella. In addition Brucella represents potential biological warfare agents due to the high contagious rates for humans and animals. Therefore, the strai...

    Authors: Riccardo De Santis, Andrea Ciammaruconi, Giovanni Faggioni, Raffaele D'Amelio, Cinzia Marianelli and Florigio Lista
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:66
  13. There is an increasing number of complete and incomplete virus genome sequences available in public databases. This large body of sequence data harbors information about epidemiology, phylogeny, and virulence....

    Authors: Wolfgang Resch, Leonid Zaslavsky, Boris Kiryutin, Michael Rozanov, Yiming Bao and Tatiana A Tatusova
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:65
  14. Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is a common clinical problem with E. coli being the most common urinary pathogen. Bacterial uptake into epithelial cells is increasingly recognised as an important feature...

    Authors: Ke Li, Wuding Zhou, Yuzhi Hong, Steven H Sacks and Neil S Sheerin
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:64
  15. It is increasingly recognized that Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) has the ability to protect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)-induced damage of the epithelial monolayer barrier function by...

    Authors: Huanlong Qin, Zhongwei Zhang, Xiaomin Hang and Yanqun Jiang
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:63
  16. The importance of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) infections in the Arabian Gulf including Kuwait is not known. The prevalence of DEC (enterotoxigenic [ETEC], enteropathogenic [EPEC], enteroinvasive [EIEC],...

    Authors: M John Albert, Vincent O Rotimi, Rita Dhar, Susan Silpikurian, Alexander S Pacsa, A Majid Molla and Gyorgy Szucs
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:62
  17. Staphylococcus aureus immunodominant surface antigen B (IsaB) elicits an immune response during septicemia and is generally classified as a virulence factor, but its biological function remains completely undefin...

    Authors: Nicole M Mackey-Lawrence, Denise E Potter, Nuno Cerca and Kimberly K Jefferson
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:61
  18. Initial step of β-oxidation is catalyzed by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in prokaryotes and mitochondria, while acyl-CoA oxidase primarily functions in the peroxisomes of eukaryotes. Oxidase reaction accompanies emi...

    Authors: Tomohisa Kato, Asuka Miyanaga, Shigenori Kanaya and Masaaki Morikawa
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:60
  19. Aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. Interestingly, recent genome analysis of A. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional ...

    Authors: Mayken W Wadman, Ronald P de Vries, Stefanie IC Kalkhove, Gerrit A Veldink and Johannes FG Vliegenthart
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:59
  20. Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen responsible for trichomonosis, the number-one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) worldwide, while T. tenax is a commensal of the human oral cavity, ...

    Authors: Ashwini S Kucknoor, Vasanthakrishna Mundodi and JF Alderete
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:58
  21. Campylobacter jejuni infection produces a spectrum of clinical presentations in humans – including asymptomatic carriage, watery diarrhea, and bloody diarrhea – and has been epidemiologically associated with subs...

    Authors: Julia A Bell, Jessica L St Charles, Alice J Murphy, Vijay AK Rathinam, Anne E Plovanich-Jones, Erin L Stanley, John E Wolf, Jenna R Gettings, Thomas S Whittam and Linda S Mansfield
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:57
  22. Archaea share with bacteria the ability to bias their movement towards more favorable locations, a process known as taxis. Two molecular systems drive this process: the motility apparatus and the chemotaxis si...

    Authors: Matthias Schlesner, Arthur Miller, Stefan Streif, Wilfried F Staudinger, Judith Müller, Beatrix Scheffer, Frank Siedler and Dieter Oesterhelt
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:56
  23. The aim of the study was to investigate expression of ADAMs (A Disintegrin and A Metalloproteinase) of host cell origin during cell-cell fusion induced by human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2).

    Authors: Guo-Feng Ma, Simo Miettinen, Pauliina Porola, Klaus Hedman, Jari Salo and Yrjö T Konttinen
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:55
  24. In cyanobacteria three enzymes are directly involved in the hydrogen metabolism; a nitrogenase that produces molecular hydrogen, H2, as a by-product of nitrogen fixation, an uptake hydrogenase that recaptures H2 ...

    Authors: Marie Holmqvist, Karin Stensjö, Paulo Oliveira, Pia Lindberg and Peter Lindblad
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:54
  25. The last step in the maturation process of the large subunit of [NiFe]-hydrogenases is a proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminal by a hydrogenase specific protease. Contrary to other accessory proteins these hy...

    Authors: Ellenor Devine, Marie Holmqvist, Karin Stensjö and Peter Lindblad
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:53
  26. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important pathogen associated with both nosocomial and community-acquired infections and its pathogenicity is attributed to its potential to produce virulence factors. Sinc...

    Authors: Miki Nagao, Akira Okamoto, Keiko Yamada, Tadao Hasegawa, Yoshinori Hasegawa and Michio Ohta
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:52
  27. Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that is a facultative intracellular pathogen. The interaction between macrophages and C. neoformans is critical for extrapulmonary dissemination of this pathogenic...

    Authors: Mauricio Alvarez, Tamika Burn, Yong Luo, Liise-anne Pirofski and Arturo Casadevall
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:51
  28. The recently sequenced genome of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 [1] revealed a dairy organism with significant homology (75% of genes are homologous) to a probiotic bacteria Lb. acidophilus NCFM [2]. This led u...

    Authors: Orla O'Sullivan, John O'Callaghan, Amaia Sangrador-Vegas, Olivia McAuliffe, Lydia Slattery, Pawel Kaleta, Michael Callanan, Gerald F Fitzgerald, R Paul Ross and Tom Beresford
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:50
  29. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replicati...

    Authors: Chris M Cirimotich, Jaclyn C Scott, Aaron T Phillips, Brian J Geiss and Ken E Olson
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:49
  30. The ability to culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens serves as the gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, a number of false-positive diagnoses may be due to cross-contamina...

    Authors: Zoheira Djelouadji, Jean Orehek and Michel Drancourt
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:47
  31. β-lactam resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is a significant clinical problem in the community, long-term care facilities, and hospitals. In these organisms, β-lactam resistance most commonly results from th...

    Authors: Andrea M Hujer, Karen S Keslar, Nicole J Dietenberger, Christopher R Bethel, Andrea Endimiani and Robert A Bonomo
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:46
  32. The survival of Salmonella enterica within the intracellular host niche requires highly co-ordinated expression of virulence effectors predominantly regulated by the SsrAB two-component regulatory system. S. ente...

    Authors: Suzanne E Osborne and Brian K Coombes
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:45
  33. Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, affects a large number of people in both the USA and Europe. The mouse is a natural host for this spirochete and is widely used as a model system to study Lyme pathog...

    Authors: Diana S Saidac, Salvatore AE Marras and Nikhat Parveen
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:43
  34. The Salmonella PreA/PreB two-component system (TCS) is an ortholog of the QseBC TCS of Escherichia coli. In both Salmonella and E. coli, this system has been shown to affect motility and virulence in response to ...

    Authors: Massimo Merighi, Alecia N Septer, Amanda Carroll-Portillo, Aditi Bhatiya, Steffen Porwollik, Michael McClelland and John S Gunn
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:42
  35. A novel DNA phosphorothioate modification (DNA sulfur modification), in which one of the non-bridging oxygen atoms in the phosphodiester bond linking DNA nucleotides is exchanged by sulphur, was found to be ge...

    Authors: Tiegang Xu, Jingdan Liang, Shi Chen, Lianrong Wang, Xinyi He, Delin You, Zhijun Wang, Aiying Li, Zhongli Xu, Xiufen Zhou and Zixin Deng
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:41
  36. Mycobacterial pathogens are a major threat to humans. With the increasing availability of functional genomic data, research on mycobacterial pathogenesis and subsequent control strategies will be greatly accel...

    Authors: Xinxing Zhu, Suhua Chang, Kechi Fang, Sijia Cui, Jun Liu, Zuowei Wu, Xuping Yu, George F Gao, Huanming Yang, Baoli Zhu and Jing Wang
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:40
  37. Mutations associated with resistance to rifampin or streptomycin have been reported for W/Beijing and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) strain families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A few studies with limited s...

    Authors: Elis R Dalla Costa, Marta O Ribeiro, Márcia SN Silva, Liane S Arnold, Diana C Rostirolla, Patricia I Cafrune, Roger C Espinoza, Moises Palaci, Maria A Telles, Viviana Ritacco, Philip N Suffys, Maria L Lopes, Creuza L Campelo, Silvana S Miranda, Kristin Kremer, Pedro E Almeida da Silva…
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:39
  38. Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of blast disease of rice, is the most destructive disease of rice worldwide. The genome of this fungal pathogen has been sequenced and an automated annotation has recently bee...

    Authors: Shaowu Meng, Douglas E Brown, Daniel J Ebbole, Trudy Torto-Alalibo, Yeon Yee Oh, Jixin Deng, Thomas K Mitchell and Ralph A Dean
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S8

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  39. Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes result in significant economic losses every year. Although phylogenetically distant, the infection processes by these organisms share many common features. These in...

    Authors: Shaowu Meng, Trudy Torto-Alalibo, Marcus C Chibucos, Brett M Tyler and Ralph A Dean
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S7

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  40. A critical function for symbionts is the acquisition of nutrients from their host. Relationships between hosts and symbionts range from biotrophic mutualism to necrotrophic parasitism, with a corresponding ran...

    Authors: Marcus C Chibucos and Brett M Tyler
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S6

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  41. Manipulation of programmed cell death (PCD) is central to many host microbe interactions. Both plant and animal cells use PCD as a powerful weapon against biotrophic pathogens, including viruses, which draw th...

    Authors: Marcus C Chibucos, Candace W Collmer, Trudy Torto-Alalibo, Michelle Gwinn-Giglio, Magdalen Lindeberg, Donghui Li and Brett M Tyler
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S5

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  42. Genome-informed identification and characterization of Type III effector repertoires in various bacterial strains and species is revealing important insights into the critical roles that these proteins play in...

    Authors: Magdalen Lindeberg, Bryan S Biehl, Jeremy D Glasner, Nicole T Perna, Alan Collmer and Candace W Collmer
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S4

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  43. A wide diversity of plant-associated symbionts, including microbes, produce proteins that can enter host cells, or are injected into host cells in order to modify the physiology of the host to promote coloniza...

    Authors: Trudy Torto-Alalibo, Candace W Collmer, Magdalen Lindeberg, David Bird, Alan Collmer and Brett M Tyler
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S3

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  44. Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating the interactions of bacteria with their environments. This is particularly the case when symbiotic bacteria (whether pathogenic, commensal or mutualistic) a...

    Authors: Tsai-Tien Tseng, Brett M Tyler and João C Setubal
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S2

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  45. All microbes that form beneficial, neutral, or pathogenic associations with hosts face similar challenges. They must physically adhere to and/or gain entry to host tissues; they must avoid, suppress, or tolera...

    Authors: Trudy Torto-Alalibo, Candace W Collmer and Michelle Gwinn-Giglio
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S1

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 9 Supplement 1

  46. Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite of humans. The genome has been sequenced, but the study of individual gene products has been hampered by the lack of the ability to generate gene knockout...

    Authors: Alicia S Linford, Heriberto Moreno, Katelyn R Good, Hanbang Zhang, Upinder Singh and William A Petri Jr
    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2009 9:38

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