Phylogenetic distribution of membrane-bound signal transduction proteins. A. Phylogenetic distribution of the total number of transmembrane signal transducers. The best-fit lines are shown for proteins from gamma-bacteria (dark blue) and cyanobacteria (cyan). The symbols for various phyla are as in Fig. 2b. B. Transmembrane histidine kinases (squares), Ser/Thr kinases (circles) and diguanylate cyclases (triangles) in all proteobacteria (open symbols) and cyanobacteria (closed symbols). The best-fit lines are shown for proteobacterial (dark blue) and cyanobacterial (cyan) histidine kinases. C. Phylogenetic distribution of transmembrane histidine kinases. The best-fit lines are shown for actinobacterial (black) and cyanobacterial (cyan) histidine kinases.