WHO/CDS/CSR/APH: The Increasing Incidence of Human Campylobacteriosis, Report and Proceedings of a WHO Consultation of Experts. 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization, http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/who_cds_csr_aph_2001.7.pdf,
Blaser MJ, Wells JG, Feldman RA, Pollard RA, Allen JR: Campylobacter enteritis in the United States: a multicenter study. Ann Intern Med. 1983, 98: 360-365. 10.7326/0003-4819-98-3-360.
Saenz Y, Zarazaga M, Lantero M, Gastanares MJ, Baquero F, Torres C: Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter strains isolated from animals, foods, and humans in Spain in 1997–1998. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000, 44: 267-271. 10.1128/AAC.44.2.267-271.2000.
Tam CC, O’Brien SJ, Adak GK, Meakins SM, Frost JA: Campylobacter coli—an important foodborne pathogen. J Infect. 2003, 47: 28-32. 10.1016/S0163-4453(03)00042-2.
CDC: National Antimicrobial Resistance System, Enteric Bacteria, Human Isolates Final Report 2010. 2012, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1-74. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/narms/pdf/2010-annual-report-narms.pdf,
Gillespie IA, O’Brien SJ, Frost JA, Adak GK, Horby P, Swan AV, Painter MJ, Neal KR, Collaborators TCSSS: A case-case comparison of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni infection: A tool for generating hypotheses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002, 8: 937-942. 10.3201/eid0809.010817.
Roux F, Sproston E, Rotariu O, MacRae M, Sheppard SK, Bessell P, Smith-Palmer A, Cowden J, Maiden MCJ, Forbes KJ, Strachan NJC: Elucidating the Aetiology of human Campylobacter coli infections. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (5): e64504-10.1371/journal.pone.0064504.
Young CR, Harvey R, Anderson R, Nisbet D, Stanker LH: Enteric colonization following natural exposure to Campylobacter in pigs. Res Vet Sci. 2000, 68: 75-78. 10.1053/rvsc.1999.0335.
Friedman CR, Hoekstra RM, Samuel M, Marcus R, Bender J, Shiferaw B, Reddy S, Ahuja SD, Helfrick DL, Hardnett F, Carter M, Anderson B, Tauxe RV, Emerging Infections Program FoodNet Working Group: Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the united states: a case–control study in FoodNet sites. Clin Infect Dis. 2004, 38 (Suppl 3S): 285-296.
Engberg J, Aarestrup MF, Taylor DE, Gerner-Smidt P, Nachamkins I: Quinolone and macrolide resistance in campylobacter jejuni and C. Coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001, 7 (1): 24-34. 10.3201/eid0701.010104.
Nachamkin I, Ung H, Li M: Increasing fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, Pennsylvania, USA, 1982–2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002, 8: 1501-1503. 10.3201/eid0812.020115.
Uaboi-Egbenni PO, Bessong PO, Samie A, Obi C: Prevalence, haemolysis and antibiogram of Campylobacters isolated from pigs from three farm settlements in Venda region, Limpopo province, South Africa. Afri J Biotechnol. 2011, 7 (4): 703-711.
Gupta A, Nelson JM, Barrett TJ, Tauxe RV, Rossiter SP, Friedman CR, Joyce KW, Smith KE, Jones TF, Hawkins MA, Shiferaw B, Beebe JL, Vugia DJ, Rabatsky-Ehr T, Benson JA, Root TP, Angulo FJ, NARMS Working Group: Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains, United States, 1997–2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004, 10: 1102-1109. 10.3201/eid1006.030635.
Shlim DR, Hoge CE, Rajah R, Scott RM, Pandy P, Echeverria P: Persistent high risk of diarrhea among foreigners in Nepal during the first 2 years of residence. Clin Infect Dis. 1999, 29 (3): 613-616. 10.1086/598642.
Ghimire L, Dhakal S, Pandeya YR, Chaulagain S, Mahato BR, Satyal RC: Assessment of pork handlers’ knowledge and hygienic status of pig meat shops of Chitwan district focusing campylobacteriosis risk factors. Int J Infect Microbial. 2013, 2: 17-21.
WHO/CDS/CSR/DRS: Antibiotic Resistance: Synthesis of Recommendation by Expert Policy. 2001, World Health Organisation, http://www.who.int/drugresistance/Antimicrobial_resistance_recommendations_of_expert_polic.pdf,
Riaz S: Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and multiple antibiotic resistances (MAR) calculation of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in Pakistan. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011, 10 (33): 6325-6331.
Pearce RA, Wallace FM, Call JE, Dudley RL, Oser A, Yoder L, Sheridan JJ, Luchansky JB: Prevalence of Campylobacter within a swine slaughter and processing facility. J Food Prot. 2003, 66: 1550-1556.
ESR (Institute of Environmental Science & Research Limited): Risk profile: Campylobacter jejuni/coli in red meat. . 2007, : -Prepared as a part of a New Zealand Food Safety Authority contract for scientific services. http://www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/Risk_Profile_Campylobacter_Jejuni_Coli-Science_Research.pdf,
Pezzotti G, Serafin A, Luzzi I, Mioni R, Milan M, Perin R: Occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in animals and meat in northeastern Italy. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003, 82: 281-287. 10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00314-8.
Mdegela RH, Laurence K, Jacob P, Nonga HE: Occurences of thermophilic Campylobacter in pigs slaughtered at Morogoro slaughter slab, Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2001, l43 (1): 83-87.
Abley MJ, Wittum TE, Moeller SJ, Zerby HN, Funk JA: Quantification of Campylobacter in swine before, during and after slaughter process. J Food Production. 2012, 75 (1): 139-143. 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-334.
von Altrock A, Hamedy A, Merle R, Waldmann KH: Campylobacter spp. –Prevalence on pig livers and antimicrobial susceptibility. Prev Vet Med. 2012, 109 (1–2): 152-157. 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2012.09.010
Jonker A, Picard J: Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa. J South African VetAssoc. 2010, 81: 228-236.
Gallay A, Prouzet-Mauléon V, Kempf I, Lehours P, Labadi L, Camou C, Denis M, de Valk H, Desenclos JC, Megraud F: Campylobacter antimicrobial drug resistance among humans, broiler chickens, and pigs France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007, 13: 259-601. 10.3201/eid1302.060587.
Van Hees BC, Veldman-Ariesen M, de Jongh BM, Tersmette M, van Pelt W: Regional and seasonal differences in incidence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter from a nationwide surveillance study in the Netherlands: an overview of 2000–2004. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007, 13: 305-310. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01643.x.
Varela N, Friendship R, Dewey C: Prevalence of resistance to 11 antimicrobials among Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs on 80 grower-finisher farms in Ontario. Can J Vet Res. 2007, 71: 189-194.
Larkin C, van Donkersgoed C, Mahdi A, Johnson P, McNab B, Odumeru J: Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from hog, beef, and chicken carcass samples from provincially inspected abattoirs in Ontario. J Food Prot. 2006, 69: 22-26.
Aarestrup FM, Nielsen EM, Madsen M, Engberg J: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic campylobacter spp. From humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997, 41: 2244-2250.
Payot S, Dridi S, Laroche M, Federighi M, Magras C: Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli isolated from fattening pigs in France. Vet Microbiol. 2004, 101: 91-99. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2004.03.014.
Mattheus W, Botteldoorn N, Heylen K, Pochet B, Dierick K: Trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from Belgian pork and poultry meat products using surveillance data of 2004–2009. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012, 9: 5-
Sato K, Bartlet PC, Kaneene JN, Downs FP: Comparison of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from organic and conventional dairy hers in Wisconsin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004, 70: 1442-1447. 10.1128/AEM.70.3.1442-1447.2004.
Thakur S, Gebreyes WA: Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in antimicrobial-free and conventional pig production systems. J Food Prot. 2005, 68: 2402-2410.
Norma PV, Friendship R, Dewey C: Prevalence of resistance to 11 antimicrobials among Campylobacter coli isolated from pigs on 80 grower-finisher farms in Canada. Can J Vet Res. 2007, 71: 189-194.
Oosterom J, Dekker R, De Wilde GJA, van Kempen-de TF, Engels GB: Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella during pig slaughtering. Vet Q. 1985, 7: 31-32. 10.1080/01652176.1985.9693950.
Nesbakken T, Eckner K, ROtterud OJ: The effect of blast chilling on occurance of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica compared to Campylobacter spp. and numbers of hygienic indicator on pig carcass. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008, 123 (1–2): 130-133.
ICMSF: Micro-Organisms in Foods 6. Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). 1998, London: Blackie Academic and Professional