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Table 3 Median values and ranges of the concentration (ppm) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of faecal and urine samples from treated celiac disease (T-CD) children and non-celiac children (HC) as determined by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry/solid-phase microextraction (GC-MS/SPME) analysis

From: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization

Chemical class Treated celiac disease (T-CD)children Non-celiac children (HC)
  Faeces Urines Faeces Urines
  Median Range Median Range Median Range Median Range
Esters 20.31b 0 - 846.97 0.47c 0 - 40.00 47.73a 1.83 - 496.83 0.99c 0 - 8.05
Sulfur compounds 214.83b 0 - 890.86 1.46c 0 - 25.44 387.07a 0 - 499.88 3.49c 0 - 63.67
Ketones 90.88b 0 - 2402.50 54.01c 0 - 295.03 112.83a 0 - 416.20 64.49c 0 - 458.78
Hydrocarbons 16.69b 0 - 1327.15 4.25c 0 - 67.07 119.13a 0.22 - 635.25 3.14c 0.15 - 62.56
Aldehydes 17.59c 0 - 512.28 64.31a 0.34 - 166.31 37.46b 2.08 - 365.25 73.37a 0.50 - 199.56
Alcohols 230.14a 0 - 2311.29 2.25c 0 - 17.5 122.56b 0 - 934.22 2.14c 0 - 34.96
Alkane 6.73a 0 - 653.61 0.3b 0.05 - 1.57 9.37a 0 - 432.74 0.43b 0 - 1.47
Alkene 0a 0 - 32.51 0a 0 0a 0 - 31.99 0a 0
Aromatic organic compounds 178.24b 0 - 143.67 2.10c 0.04 - 28.16 480.20a 233.74 - 993.94 2.78c 0 - 16.30
Heptane 23.01a 0 - 837.50 0c 0 - 1.37 26.37a 0 - 65.75 0.34b 0 - 2.37
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) 21.64a 0 - 1438.28 3b 0.08 - 31.14 27.85a 0 - 1037.50 3.82b 1.44 - 24.87
  1. Data are the means of three independent experiments (n = 3) for each children.
  2. a-cMeans within a row with different superscript letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).