The hyl Efm gene in pHylEfm of Enterococcus faecium is not required in pathogenesis of murine peritonitis
© Panesso et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 17 September 2010
Accepted: 25 January 2011
Published: 25 January 2011
Plasmids containing hyl Efm (pHylEfm) were previously shown to increase gastrointestinal colonization and lethality of Enterococcus faecium in experimental peritonitis. The hyl Efm gene, predicting a glycosyl hydrolase, has been considered as a virulence determinant of hospital-associated E. faecium, although its direct contribution to virulence has not been investigated. Here, we constructed mutants of the hyl Efm -region and we evaluated their effect on virulence using a murine peritonitis model.
Five mutants of the hyl Efm -region of pHylEfmTX16 from the sequenced endocarditis strain (TX16 [DO]) were obtained using an adaptation of the PheS* system and were evaluated in a commensal strain TX1330RF to which pHylEfmTX16 was transferred by mating; these include i) deletion of hyl Efm only; ii) deletion of the gene downstream of hyl Efm (down) of unknown function; iii) deletion of hyl Efm plus down; iv) deletion of hyl Efm -down and two adjacent genes; and v) a 7,534 bp deletion including these four genes plus partial deletion of two others, with replacement by cat. The 7,534 bp deletion did not affect virulence of TX16 in peritonitis but, when pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534 was transferred to the TX1330RF background, the transconjugant was affected in in vitro growth versus TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16) and was attenuated in virulence; however, neither hyl Efm nor hyl Efm -down restored wild type function. We did not observe any in vivo effect on virulence of the other deletions of the hyl Efm -region
The four genes of the hyl Efm region (including hyl Efm ) do not mediate the increased virulence conferred by pHylEfmTX16 in murine peritonitis. The use of the markerless counterselection system PheS* should facilitate the genetic manipulation of E. faecium in the future.
Enterococcus faecium is a common enterococcal species increasingly isolated from hospital-associated infections in the USA . Compelling evidence suggests that this substantial increase in E. faecium nosocomial infections is due to the worldwide occurrence of a genetic subcluster (designated clonal cluster 17, CC17) which encompasses clones that appear to have evolved independently [2–4]. Several genes have been associated with CC17 E. faecium including i) esp Efm , encoding a surface protein which has been associated with increased biofilm formation and urinary tract infection (UTI) [4–6]; ii) some fms genes (two of which are also designated pilA and pilB), encoding putative microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) or components of enterococcal pili (including the pilus operon ebpABC fm , which appear to play a role in biofilm formation and experimental UTI) [2, 7–10]; iii) an intact acm gene encoding a collagen adhesin which was shown to be important in the pathogenesis of endocarditis  and, iv) plasmids carrying the hyl Efm gene [11–14].
It has been previously shown that hyl Efm is carried by large transferable megaplasmids of different sizes (145 to 375 kb) in hospital-associated E. faecium which are widely distributed worldwide [11–13, 15] These plasmids also can harbour antibiotic resistance determinants and some pilus-encoding genes of E. faecium which are present with hyl Efm in the same plasmid [15, 16]. The acquisition of the hyl Efm -plasmid by an E. faecium laboratory strain (D344SRF) from a US clinical isolate (C68) increased the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of mice, an effect that was independent of the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants . Moreover, the acquisition of the hyl Efm -plasmid from another US clinical strain (TX16) increased the virulence of a commensal strain E. faecium TX1330RF in experimental peritonitis .
The HylEfm protein was initially predicted to have homology with hyaluronidases which have been associated with virulence in other gram-positive pathogens [18, 19], although hyaluronidase activity has not been detected in E. faecium isolates carrying this gene . The most recent annotation and sequence comparisons indicate that this protein is likely to encode a family 84 glycosyl hydrolase [12, 13]. In fact, the homolog of hyl Efm in Streptococcus pyogenes (spy1600) encoded in a genetic locus with a similar organization to that of the hyl Efm -region and sharing 42% identity at the amino acid level (61% similarity), was recently shown not to have any detectable hyaluronidase activity. Spy1600 was characterized as a family 84 glycosyl hydrolase with β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase specificity after purification and substrate analysis  and expression of spy1600 in S. pyogenes was found to be up-regulated during phagocytosis . For this reason, and because of the almost exclusive occurrence of hyl Efm in isolates from clinical origin in different surveillance studies [14, 22–24], this gene has been postulated as an important pathogenic determinant of hospital-associated E. faecium. However, its exact role in virulence has not been established. In this work, we assess the role of the hyl Efm -region in E. faecium pathogenesis of experimental peritonitis.
Bacterial strains and plasmids
E. faecium strains and plasmids used in this work
Sequenced endocarditis clinical isolate, Emr, Smr. ST-16a http://www.hgsc.bcm.tmc.edu
Fsr and Rfr derivative of TX1330, a faecal colonizing strain from a healthy human volunteer
Derivative of TX1330RF to which the hyl Efm -containing plasmid (pHylEfmTX16) was transferred by conjugation from TX16 (DO) (~250 kb)
Mutant with deletion of part or all of 6 genes of the hyl Efm region of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16)
Non-polar deletion of 4 genes of the hyl Efm region of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16)
TX1330RF (pHylEfmTX16Δ hyl )
Non-polar deletion mutant of hyl Efm of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16)
TX1330RF (pHylEfmTX16Δ hyl-down )
Non-polar deletion of hyl Efm plus its downstream gene of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16)
TX1330RF (pHylEfmTX16Δ down )
Non-polar deletion of the gene downstream of hyl Efm of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16)
OG1Sp upp4::P23 repA4
Conjugative and transferable megaplasmid (ca. 250 kb) of TX16 (DO) containing hyl Efm
Conjugative donor plasmid for markerless mutagenesis; oriTpCF10 and pheS* pORI280 derivative; confers Emr
Derivative of pCJK47 in which the erm(C) gene was replaced by aph-2'-ID; confers Gmr
Derivative of pCJK47 in which the erm(C) gene was replaced by aph-2'-ID and cat was incorporated in the cloning site for allelic replacements; confers Gmr.
E. coli-enterococcal shuttle plasmid for mutagenesis using a temperature-sensitive replicon
oriRpAMβ1, oriRpUC oriTRK2 spc lacZα P2 aac(6')-aph(2")
Derivative of pAT392 containing hyl Efm (cloned with SacI and SmaI) under the control of the P2 promoter
pAT392::hyl Efm- down
Derivative of pAT392 containing both the hyl Efm plus downstream genes (cloned with SacI and SmaI) under the control of the P2 promoter
Construction of a deletion mutant of the hyl Efm -region using the pheS* counter-selection system in TX16(pHylEfmTX16) and its transfer to TX1330RF
Primers used in this work
Forward, BglII site (underlined), used amplification of aph-2"-ID
Reverse, NsiI site (underlined), used amplification of aph-2"-ID
Forward, BamHI site (underlined), located 1,251 nucleotides upstream of the start codon of the gene encoding a putative glycosyl hydrolase family 20 (Figure 1.)
Reverse, XhoI site (underlined), located 294 nucleotides upstream of the start codon of the gene encoding a putative glycosyl hydrolase family 20 (Figure 1.)
Forward, ApaI site (underlined); located 592 nucleotides downstream of the down gene (hypothetical, Figure 1.)
Reverse, EcoRI site, 1,571 nucleotides downstream of the down gene (hypothetical, Figure 1.)
Forward, SacI site (underlined), ribosomal binding site of hyl Efm (italics) (Figure 1.)
Reverse, SmaI site, (underlined) and stop codon of hyl Efm (Figure 1.)
Reverse, SmaI site (underlined), stop codon of down (Figure 1.)
Forward, BamH site (underlined) 438 nucleotides upstream of the stop codon of carbohydrate ABC transporter gene (Figure 1.)
Reverse, stop codon of the gene that encodes to transmembrane protein (Figure 1.)
Forward, ApaI, XhoI, NotI site, stop codon down (Figure 1.)
Reverse, NsiI site, 1,091 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of GMP synthase (opposite orientation) (Figure 1.)
Forward, EcoRI site (underlined), located 2,138 nucleotides down-stream of glycosyl hidrolase family 45-2 start codon (Figure 1.)
Reverse, stop codon of glycosyl hydrolase family 45-2 (Figure 1.)
Forward, located 40 nucleotides upstream of down gene start codon (Figure 1.)
Reverse, NotI site (underlined), stop codon of down (Figure 1.)
Forward, NotI site (underlined), located 2,138 nucleotides down-stream of glycosyl hydrolase family 45-2 start codon (Figure 1.)
Reverse, stop codon of glycosyl hydrolase family 45-2 (Figure 1.)
Forward, 1,973 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of GMP synthase (Figure 1.)
Reverse, EcoRI site (underlined), 994 nucleotides upstream of start codon of GMP synthase (opposite direction) (Figure 1.)
Forward, NotI site (underlined), 902 nucleotides downstream of hyl Efm start codon (Figure 1.)
Reverse, stop codon of of hyl Efm (Figure 1.)
Forward, 1,973 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of GMP synthase (opposite direction) (Figure 1.)
Reverse, EcoRI site (underlined), 1,094 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of GMP synthase (opposite direction) (Figure 1.)
Forward, 143 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of GH20 (Figure 3.)
Reverse, 139 nucleotides upstream of start codon of GH42 (Figure 3.)
Forward, SalI site (underlined), 2,316 nucleotides downstream of start codon of GH42 (Figure 3.)
Reverse, BglII site (underlined), 159 nucleotides downstream of start codon of hyl Efm (Figure 3.)
Forward, 138 nucleotides downstream of start codon of hyl Efm (Figure 3.)
Reverse, 798 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of hyl Efm (Figure 3.)
Forward, SphI site (underlined), 169 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of hyl Efm (Figure 3.)
Reverse, EcoRI site (underlined), 319 nucleotides upstream of stop codon of down gene (Figure 3.)
In order to create a deletion mutant of the hyl Efm -region (which contains genes predicted to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism and transport; Figure 1), fragments upstream (977 bp) and downstream (999 bp) of this region were amplified by PCR (with primers C-D and E-F, respectively; Table 2) and cloned upstream and downstream of the cat gene in pHOU2, respectively, using BamHI and XhoI for the upstream fragment and ApaI and EcoRI for the downstream fragment; the correct insert was confirmed by sequencing in both directions. This recombinant plasmid was introduced into E. faecalis CK111 by electroporation as described previously [25, 28] and blue colonies were recovered on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plates containing gentamicin (125 μg/ml) and X-Gal (200 μg/ml). Subsequently, the pHOU2 derivatives were introduced into strain TX16 by filter mating  with E. faecalis CK111 as the donor. Single cross-over integrants were selected on gentamicin (170 μg/ml) and erythromycin (200 mg/ml) and purified colonies were then resuspended in 50 μl of normal saline and plated on MM9YEG media (salts and yeast extract) supplemented with 7 mM of p-Cl-Phe  and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. To confirm that colonies which grew on MM9YEG media supplemented with p-Cl-Phe were excisants, the corresponding colonies were grown simultaneously on BHI agar in the presence and absence of gentamicin. Colonies that were susceptible to gentamicin were further screened by PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and hybridizations with hyl Efm and cat probes as described before . The mutated region was also sequenced in order to confirm deletion of the corresponding genes. Subsequently, the mutated hyl Efm -containing plasmid (pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) was transferred from E. faecium TX16 to TX1330RF (a fusidic and rifampin resistant derivative of the commensal strain TX1330, Table 1) by filter mating as described previously  to obtain the strain TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534). Acquisition of the mutated plasmid by TX1330RF was also confirmed by PFGE, PCR, hybridizations and sequencing. S1 nuclease digestion and PFGE was performed with the mutant to confirm that no other plasmid had transferred during the conjugation event as previously described .
Complementation of the hyl Efm -region mutant TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534)
The hyl Efm gene was PCR amplified with primers G and H (including the ribosomal binding site and the stop codon of hyl Efm ) (Table 2) using total DNA from TX16 as template, and the DNA fragment (1,685 bp) cloned into the shuttle plasmid pAT392  under the control of the P2 promoter (which allows constitutive expression of the cloned genes) and upstream of the aac(6')-aph(2") gene (which is co-transcribed from the same promoter) using SacI and SmaI sites (plasmid pAT392::hyl Efm ). In order to evaluate if the deletion of hyl Efm had an effect in the downstream gene (encoding a hypothetical protein of 331 amino acids of unknown function), the hyl Efm and down genes (Figure 1) were also cloned together into pAT392 following a similar strategy and using primers G and I (pAT392::hyl Efm -down). Recombinant pAT392-derivatives were purified from E. coli grown on Luria-Bertani agar containing gentamicin (25 μg/ml) and all their DNA inserts sequenced. Subsequently, they were introduced into E. faecium TX1330RF, and the TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) mutant by electroporation. Stability of the plasmid constructs was tested by isolating ca. 100 colonies from overnight cultures (using BHI broth) and from the spleens of dead animals (in different experiments) after intraperitoneal inoculation of the corresponding strain (see below) and plating them simultaneously on BHI and BHI-gentamicin (125 μg/ml).
Construction of additional mutants of the hyl Efm -region in E. faecium TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16)
To investigate the specific role of the hyl Efm locus in E. faecium pathogenesis, complete in-frame deletions of four genes of the hyl Efm -region, hyl Efm alone, hyl Efm plus its downstream gene and the gene downstream of hyl Efm were generated using TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16). Fragments upstream and downstream of each region were amplified by PCR with the corresponding primers (Figure 1 and Table 2). These fragments, with overlapping ends, were subsequently amplified by crossover PCR and cloned into pHOU1 using EcoRI and NotI (for hyl Efm , hyl Efm plus its downstream gene and the downstream gene of hyl Efm mutants); and BamHI and PstI (for the four gene mutant). The inserts were sequenced in both directions to confirm that no mutations had been introduced during the cloning process. The recombinant plasmids were electroporated or transferred by conjugation (using E. faecalis CK111) into TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16). Single crossover events and deletions of targeted regions (Figure 1) were obtained by plating in BHI with gentamicin and p-Cl-Phe containing medium, respectively, as previously described . Confirmation of the deletion was performed by PCR, PFGE, hybridizations and DNA sequencing.
Mouse peritonitis model
Female (4 to 6 week old), outbred ICR mice (Harlan Sprague Dawley, Houston) were used as previously described . Groups of 10 mice per inoculum (ranging from 2.3 × 108 to 3.1 × 109 CFU/ml) were included in each experiment. Inocula for each peritonitis experiment were prepared by growing bacteria initially on BHI agar plates. Subsequently, one colony was grown in BHI broth for 24 h at 37°C and the cells were concentrated in saline (0.9%) to an A600 of ca. 1.2. Strains containing pAT392 and derivatives were handled similarly before the intraperitoneal inoculation, except that the BHI agar and broth contained gentamicin (125 μg/ml). Comparison of the survival curves at similar inocula was performed using a log-rank test with Prism for Windows®. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. All experiments were approved by the Animal Welfare committee, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.
Results and Discussion
Deletion of 6 genes in the E. faecium hyl Efm -region altered in vitro growth and attenuated virulence of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16) but not TX16(pHylEfmTX16) in murine peritonitis
Next, we considered the possibility that an in vivo effect might be more clearly dissected if studies were performed in the background of a non-clinical strain. We hypothesized that an in vivo effect of a virulence determinant might more likely be seen in strains which are less successful clinically; that is, that a commensal strain such as TX1330RF  is likely to have decreased fitness or ability to produce disease compared to TX16  and, thus, acquisition plus subsequent loss of a virulence determinant that alters such fitness would be easier to identify . Thus, the mutated plasmid from strain TX16(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) was transferred to TX1330RF by conjugation and the in vivo effect of acquiring the intact plasmid  vs the plasmid carrying the deletion was evaluated. The two strains [TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16) and TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534)] appeared to differ only in the size of the hyl Efm plasmid by PFGE and S1 nuclease assays  (not shown). Figure 4B shows that deletion of 7,534 bp in the hyl Efm region of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16) caused an in vitro growth defect. The alteration of growth was also seen in a second transconjugant from the same mating experiment between TX16(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) and TX1330RF (TC-II in Figure 4B). The mutant strain TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) was attenuated in the mouse model of peritonitis (even when an increased intraperitoneal inoculum for the mutant were used) (Figure 4C and 4D) (P < 0.05). Due to the alterations produced in the growth of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534), these results suggest that the attenuation in virulence may have also been due to factors other than those specifically related to virulence.
Complementation of the hyl Efm -region mutant with hyl Efm and a combination of hyl Efm and the downstream gene did not restore the virulence of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534)
Under our experimental conditions, we cannot completely rule out that the in vivo attenuation observed with pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534 in the TX1330RF background may have been caused by the partial deletion of the hypothetical transmembrane protein or the putative GMP-synthase located upstream and downstream of the hyl Efm -cluster, respectively. Indeed, a deletion of 76 amino acids in the C-terminus of the hypothetical membrane protein occurred in this plasmid, resulting in the deletion of three predicted transmembrane helices. Similarly, 68 amino acids in the C-terminus of the putative GMP-synthase were deleted; the removal of these amino acids is likely to disturb the dimerization domain of this protein  affecting its function in nucleotide metabolism. Moreover, a second TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) mutant also exhibited an almost identical growth defect (Figure 4B). Thus, it is tempting to speculate that changes in these two genes may have affected the "metabolic" fitness of the TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) strain. However, since no evident change in fitness or virulence was observed with the mutated plasmid in the TX16 background, another possibility is that an extraneous change elsewhere in the plasmid (or chromosome) occurred during the conjugation process that influenced the in vitro growth of the TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16Δ7,534) mutant(s) and its virulence.
Additional deletions of genes in the hyl Efm -region did not alter the virulence of TX1330RF(pHylEfmTX16) in the mouse peritonitis model
Megaplasmids (>145 kb, with or without hyl Efm ) have been recently found to be widespread among clinical isolates of E. faecium worldwide [12, 13, 15]. The proportion of these plasmids carrying hyl Efm appears to vary according to geographical location (ca. 11 to 36%) [12, 13]. Our findings indicate that the four genes of the hyl Efm -cluster studied here, including hyl Efm are not the main mediators of the virulence effect conferred by the plasmid carrying them in experimental peritonitis. Since the pHylEfm plasmids are large, it is presumed that other genes (i.e., upstream or downstream of the glycoside hydrolase-encoding genes) are more relevant in mediating this effect. Additionally, we cannot exclude that the hyl Efm cluster studied in this work may play a role in other infections such as endocarditis or urinary tract infections (a subject of our ongoing studies). As a final remark, the adaptation of the pheS* counter-selection system for targeted mutagenesis in plasmid and chromosomal genes of E. faecium will facilitate the understanding of the role of other specific plasmid genes in the pathogenesis of E. faecium infections in the near future.
We provided evidence that four genes of the hyl Efm -region (including hyl Efm ) do not mediate the virulence effect of the E. faecium plasmid pHylEfm in experimental peritonitis. The adaptation of the PheS* counter-selection system for targeted mutagenesis of E. faecium should facilitate the study of the role of other pHylEfm genes in the pathogenesis of murine peritonitis.
CAA is supported by NIH Pathway to independence award R00 AI72961 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). This work was also supported in part by NIH grant R56 AI042399 and R01 AI067861 (to BEM) and R01 grant AI045626 (to LBR) from the NIAID. DP was partially funded by a graduate scholarship from The Instituto Colombiano para el Desarrollo de la Ciencia y Tecnología, "Francisco José de Caldas", COLCIENCIAS. SR was supported by an ASM-PAHO Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Surveillance Fellowship. We are grateful to Patrice Courvalin and Gary Dunny for providing plasmids pAT392 and pCJK47, respectively, and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, (Bogotá, Colombia) for logistic support. We are grateful to Shreedhar Nallapareddy for useful discussions and experimental advice.
- Hidron AI, Edwards JR, Patel J, Horan TC, Sievert DM, Pollock DA, Fridkin SK: NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006-2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008, 29 (11): 996-1011. 10.1086/591861.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Willems RJ, van Schaik W: Transition of Enterococcus faecium from commensal organism to nosocomial pathogen. Future Microbiol. 2009, 4: 1125-1135. 10.2217/fmb.09.82.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van Schaik W, Top J, Riley DR, Boekhorst J, Vrijenhoek JE, Schapendonk CM, Hendrickx AP, Nijman IJ, Bonten MJ, Tettelin H, et al: Pyrosequencing-based comparative genome analysis of the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium and identification of a large transferable pathogenicity island. BMC Genomics. 2010, 11: 239-10.1186/1471-2164-11-239.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Willems RJ, Top J, van Santen M, Robinson DA, Coque TM, Baquero F, Grundmann H, Bonten MJ: Global spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from distinct nosocomial genetic complex. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005, 11 (6): 821-828.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Heikens E, Bonten MJ, Willems RJ: Enterococcal surface protein Esp is important for biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecium E1162. J Bacteriol. 2007, 189 (22): 8233-8240. 10.1128/JB.01205-07.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Leendertse M, Heikens E, Wijnands LM, van Luit-Asbroek M, Teske GJ, Roelofs JJ, Bonten MJ, van der Poll T, Willems RJ: Enterococcal surface protein transiently aggravates Enterococcus faecium-induced urinary tract infection in mice. J Infect Dis. 2009, 200 (7): 1162-1165. 10.1086/605609.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hendrickx AP, Bonten MJ, van Luit-Asbroek M, Schapendonk CM, Kragten AH, Willems RJ: Expression of two distinct types of pili by a hospital-acquired Enterococcus faecium isolate. Microbiology. 2008, 154 (Pt 10): 3212-3223. 10.1099/mic.0.2008/020891-0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nallapareddy SR, Singh KV, Murray BE: Contribution of the collagen adhesin Acm to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in experimental endocarditis. Infect Immun. 2008, 76 (9): 4120-4128. 10.1128/IAI.00376-08.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sillanpaa J, Prakash VP, Nallapareddy SR, Murray BE: Distribution of genes encoding MSCRAMMs and Pili in clinical and natural populations of Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 2009, 47 (4): 896-901. 10.1128/JCM.02283-08.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sillanpaa J, Nallapareddy SR, Singh KV, Prakash VP, Fothergill T, Ton-That H, Murray BE: Characterization of the ebp pilus-encoding operon of Enterococcus faecium and its role in biofilm formation and virulence in a murine model of urinary tract infection. Virulence. 2010, 1 (4): 236-246. 10.4161/viru.1.4.11966.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arias CA, Panesso D, Singh KV, Rice LB, Murray BE: Cotransfer of antibiotic resistance genes and a hyl Efm -containing virulence plasmid in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009, 53 (10): 4240-4246. 10.1128/AAC.00242-09.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Panesso D, Reyes J, Rincon S, Diaz L, Galloway-Pena J, Zurita J, Carrillo C, Merentes A, Guzman M, Adachi JA, et al: Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: a prospective, multicenter study in South American hospitals. J Clin Microbiol. 2010, 48 (5): 1562-1569. 10.1128/JCM.02526-09.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Freitas AR, Tedim AP, Novais C, Ruiz-Garbajosa P, Werner G, Laverde-Gomez JA, Canton R, Peixe L, Baquero F, Coque TM: Global spread of the hyl(Efm) colonization-virulence gene in megaplasmids of the Enterococcus faecium CC17 polyclonal subcluster. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010, 54 (6): 2660-2665. 10.1128/AAC.00134-10.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rice LB, Carias L, Rudin S, Vael C, Goossens H, Konstabel C, Klare I, Nallapareddy SR, Huang W, Murray BE: A potential virulence gene, hyl Efm , predominates in Enterococcus faecium of clinical origin. J Infect Dis. 2003, 187 (3): 508-512. 10.1086/367711.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laverde Gomez JA, van Schaik W, Freitas AR, Coque TM, Weaver KE, Francia MV, Witte W, Werner G: A multiresistance megaplasmid pLG1 bearing a hyl(Efm) genomic island in hospital Enterococcus faecium isolates. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011, 301 (2): 165-175. 10.1016/j.ijmm.2010.08.015.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim DS, Singh KV, Nallapareddy SR, Qin X, Panesso D, Arias CA, Murray BE: The fms21 (pilA)-fms20 locus encoding one of four distinct pili of Enterococcus faecium is harboured on a large transferable plasmid associated with gut colonization and virulence. J Med Microbiol. 2010, 59 (Pt 4): 505-507. 10.1099/jmm.0.016238-0.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rice LB, Lakticova V, Carias LL, Rudin S, Hutton R, Marshall SH: Transferable capacity for gastrointestinal colonization in Enterococcus faecium in a mouse model. J Infect Dis. 2009, 199 (3): 342-349. 10.1086/595986.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferretti JJ, McShan WM, Ajdic D, Savic DJ, Savic G, Lyon K, Primeaux C, Sezate S, Suvorov AN, Kenton S, et al: Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98 (8): 4658-4663. 10.1073/pnas.071559398.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shimizu T, Ohtani K, Hirakawa H, Ohshima K, Yamashita A, Shiba T, Ogasawara N, Hattori M, Kuhara S, Hayashi H: Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002, 99 (2): 996-1001. 10.1073/pnas.022493799.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sheldon WL, Macauley MS, Taylor EJ, Robinson CE, Charnock SJ, Davies GJ, Vocadlo DJ, Black GW: Functional analysis of a group A streptococcal glycoside hydrolase Spy1600 from family 84 reveals it is a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and not a hyaluronidase. Biochem J. 2006, 399 (2): 241-247. 10.1042/BJ20060307.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Voyich JM, Sturdevant DE, Braughton KR, Kobayashi SD, Lei B, Virtaneva K, Dorward DW, Musser JM, DeLeo FR: Genome-wide protective response used by group A Streptococcus to evade destruction by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100 (4): 1996-2001. 10.1073/pnas.0337370100.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galloway-Pena JR, Nallapareddy SR, Arias CA, Eliopoulos GM, Murray BE: Analysis of clonality and antibiotic resistance among early clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2009, 200 (10): 1566-1573. 10.1086/644790.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vankerckhoven V, Van Autgaerden T, Vael C, Lammens C, Chapelle S, Rossi R, Jabes D, Goossens H: Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 2004, 42 (10): 4473-4479. 10.1128/JCM.42.10.4473-4479.2004.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Werner G, Klare I, Fleige C, Witte W: Increasing rates of vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from German hospitals between 2004 and 2006 are due to wide clonal dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and horizontal spread of vanA clusters. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008, 298 (5-6): 515-527. 10.1016/j.ijmm.2007.05.008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kristich CJ, Chandler JR, Dunny GM: Development of a host-genotype-independent counterselectable marker and a high-frequency conjugative delivery system and their use in genetic analysis of Enterococcus faecalis. Plasmid. 2007, 57 (2): 131-144. 10.1016/j.plasmid.2006.08.003.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kast P, Wehrli C, Hennecke H: Impaired affinity for phenylalanine in Escherichia coli phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase mutant caused by Gly-to-Asp exchange in motif 2 of class II tRNA synthetases. FEBS Lett. 1991, 293 (1-2): 160-163. 10.1016/0014-5793(91)81176-9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nallapareddy SR, Singh KV, Murray BE: Construction of improved temperature-sensitive and mobilizable vectors and their use for constructing mutations in the adhesin-encoding acm gene of poorly transformable clinical Enterococcus faecium strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006, 72 (1): 334-345. 10.1128/AEM.72.1.334-345.2006.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wirth R, An FY, Clewell DB: Highly efficient protoplast transformation system for Streptococcus faecalis and a new Escherichia coli-S. faecalis shuttle vector. J Bacteriol. 1986, 165 (3): 831-836.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tomita H, Pierson C, Lim SK, Clewell DB, Ike Y: Possible connection between a widely disseminated conjugative gentamicin resistance (pMG1-like) plasmid and the emergence of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 2002, 40 (9): 3326-3333. 10.1128/JCM.40.9.3326-3333.2002.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arthur M, Depardieu F, Snaith HA, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P: Contribution of VanY D,D-carboxypeptidase to glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis by hydrolysis of peptidoglycan precursors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994, 38 (9): 1899-1903.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bourgogne A, Hilsenbeck SG, Dunny GM, Murray BE: Comparison of OG1RF and an isogenic fsrB deletion mutant by transcriptional analysis: the Fsr system of Enterococcus faecalis is more than the activator of gelatinase and serine protease. J Bacteriol. 2006, 188 (8): 2875-2884. 10.1128/JB.188.8.2875-2884.2006.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dutka-Malen S, Evers S, Courvalin P: Detection of glycopeptide resistance genotypes and identification to the species level of clinically relevant enterococci by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1995, 33 (1): 24-27.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dutka-Malen S, Evers S, Courvalin P: Detection of glycopeptide resistance genotypes and identification to the species level of clinically relevant enterococci by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1995, 33 (5): 1434-ErratumPubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Singh KV, Qin X, Weinstock GM, Murray BE: Generation and testing of mutants of Enterococcus faecalis in a mouse peritonitis model. J Infect Dis. 1998, 178 (5): 1416-1420. 10.1086/314453.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nallapareddy SR, Weinstock GM, Murray BE: Clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium exhibit strain-specific collagen binding mediated by Acm, a new member of the MSCRAMM family. Mol Microbiol. 2003, 47 (6): 1733-1747. 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03417.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bork P, Koonin EV: A P-loop-like motif in a widespread ATP pyrophosphatase domain: implications for the evolution of sequence motifs and enzyme activity. Proteins. 1994, 20 (4): 347-355. 10.1002/prot.340200407.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.