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Table 4 Association of culture positivity and clinical characteristics with bacterial meningitis, at Hawassa University, Hospital

From: Antimicrobial sensitivity profile and bacterial isolates among suspected pyogenic meningitis patients attending at Hawassa University Hospital: Cross-sectional study

Clinical characteristics Total N(%) Culture negative N(%) Culture Positive N(%) Odds ratio(95%CI) P value
Sex Male 210 (53.3) 194 (92.4) 16 (7.6) 1.37 (1.3–7.02) 0.049
Female 184 (46.7) 173 (94.1) 11 (5.9)   0.074
Age <  5 yr 71 (18.0) 60 (84.5) 11 (15.5)
5- < 14 yr 162 (41.1) 155 (95.6) 7 (4.4)   
14–50 141 (35.7) 133 (94.0) 8 (6.0)   
> 50 years 20 (5.2) 19 (95.0) 1 (5.0)   
Fever Yes 330 (83.8) 306 (92.7) 24 (7.3) 1.2 (1.35–4.0) 0.784
No 64 (16.2) 61 (95.3) 3 (4.7)   
Head ache Yes 205 (52.1) 187 (91.2) 18 (9.8) 0.71 0.469
No 189 (47.9) 180 (95.0) 9 (5.0)   
Neck Stiffness Yes 179 (45.4) 157 (87.7) 22 (14.0) 1.18 (1.06–6.53) 0.001
No 215 (54.6) 210 (97.7) 5 (2.3)   
Hx of seizure Yes 30 (7.6) 13 (43.4) 17 (56.6) 1.39 (1.15–5.99) 0.043
No 364 (92.4) 354 (97.3) 10 (3.3)   
Duration of illness before presentation <  3 days 84 (21.3) 76 (90.5) 8 (10.5) 0.137
3-7 days 175 (44.4) 161 (92) 14 (8.0)   
> 7 days 135 (34.3) 130 (96.2) 5 (3.8)   
Temp.Grade High 74 (18.8) 70 (94.3) 4 (5.7) 0.543
Low 115 (29.2) 101 (87.8) 14 (13.8)   
Normal 205 (52) 196 (95.6) 9 (4.4)   
Nuchal rigidity Yes 172 (43.6) 151 (87.8) 21 (13.2) 1.26 (1.06–4.48) 0.001*
No 222 (56.3) 216 (97.3) 6 (2.7)   
Brudniski’s Sign Yes 88 (22.3) 72 (81.8) 16 (22.2) 2.19 (2.07–5.51) 0.001
No 306 (77.6) 295 (96.4) 11 (3.6)   
Kernig’s sign Yes 67 (17.0) 54 (80.6) 13 (19.4) 1.15 (1.09–2.73) 0.008
No 327 (82.9) 313 (95.7) 14 (4.3)   
Glasgow coma scale Normal 259 (65.7) 242 (93.0) 17 (7.0) 0.523
Impairedconsciousn   128 (32.5) 119 (93.0) 9 (7.0)   
Coma   7 (1.8) 6 (85.7) 1 (15.3)   
Prehospitalantibiotic Yes 202 (51.3) 194 (96.0) 8 (4.0) 0.54 (0.211.39) 0.198
No 192 (48.7) 173 (90.0) 19 (10)   
Inhospital preLP abc Yes 252 (64.0) 246 (97.6) 6 (2.4) 1.16 (1.14–2.95) 0.015
No 142 (36) 121 (85.2) 21 (14.8)   
CSF appearance Clear 324 (82.2) 321 (99.1) 3 (0.9)   0.000
Turbid 47 (11.9) 23 (95.8) 24 (4.2)   
Bloody 23 (5.9) 23 (100)   
CSF cell level < 10 259 (65.7) 257 (99.2) 2 (0.8) 0.001*
10–100 64 (16.3) 53 (82.8) 11 (17.2)   
> 100 71 (17.9) 57 (80.0) 14 (20)   
CSF pro category < 46 273 (69.2) 270 (98.8) 3 (1.2)   0.001*
46–100 71 (18.0) 56 (78.9) 15 (21.1)   
> 100 50 (12.8) 41 (82.0) 9 (18)   
CSF glucose level < 40 125 (31.7) 104 (83.2) 21 (16.8) 1.29 (1.11–3.77) 0.010
> 40 269 (68.3) 263 (97.7) 6 (2.3)   
  1. CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid, Tem. Temperature, NO Number, abc antibiotics, CSF pro CSF protein, LP Lumbar punctur