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Table 2 Analysis of risk factors for E. bieneusi infection

From: First identification and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans in Myanmar

VariableExamined no. (%)Positive no (%)ORa (95% CIb)χ2/P-value
Demographic factorSexMale94/54.6511/11.702.45 (0.75, 8.03)1.56/0.21
Female78/45.354/5.13
Age (years)Children (<  13)97/56.395/5.15Ref 
Teenagers (13–17)41/23.845/12.200.39 (0.11, 1.43)2.13/0.15
Adults (≥ 18 years)34/19.775/14.710.32 (0.09, 1.17)3.26/0.07
Clinical symptomsDiarrheaYes42/24.423/7.140.76 (0.20, 2.82)0.01/0.92
No130/75.5812/9.23
Abdominal painYes24/13.952/8.330.94 (0.20, 4.47)0/1.00
No148/86.0513/8.78
NauseaYes5/2.9101.10 (1.05, 1.15)−/1.00c
No167/97.0915/8.98
EmesisYes8/4.651/12.51.53 (0.18, 13.35)0/1.00
No164/95.3514/8.54
AnorexiaYes6/3.491/16.672.17 (0.24, 19.91)0/1.00
No166/96.5114/8.43
Personal hygiene habitsDrinking boiled waterYes135/78.4912/8.891.11 (0.30, 4.14)0/1.00
No37/21.513/8.11
Washing hands before mealsYes98/56.989/9.181.15 (0.39, 3.38)0.06/0.80
No74/43.026/8.11
Washing hands after using toiletsYes73/42.449/12.332.18 (0.74, 6.42)2.07/0.15
No99/57.566/6.06
Eating unwashed vegetables and fruitsYes145/84.3015/10.340.90 (0.85, 0.95)−/0.13c
No27/15.700Ref 
OthersPit toiletsPublic166/96.5115/9.040.91 (0.87, 0.95)−/1.00c
Individual6/3.490
Animal feeding patternsFree-ranging36/20.932/5.560.56 (0.07, 4.29)0/0.98
Both free-ranging and captive115/66.8611/9.571.01 (0.21, 4.90)0/1.00
Captive21/12.212/9.52Ref 
  1. a OR Odds ratio. b CI Confidence interval. c Fisher’s exact test