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Table 4 Effects of dietary energy levels on the ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFA) of rumen samples in heifers aged 7 to 10 months

From: Effects of dietary energy levels on rumen bacterial community composition in Holstein heifers under the same forage to concentrate ratio condition

Items Treatments SEM P
L M H Treatment Age Treatment × Age
NH3-N (mg/dl) 15.15 15.17 15.60 1.339 0.9650 0.0204 0.0440
Total VFA (mM) 102.80 105.62 110.02 12.010 0.9131 0.0035 0.0304
Acetate (%) 67.61 67.37 67.89 0.0066 0.8586 0.1948 0.5483
Propionate (%) 20.12 19.80 20.03 0.0105 0.9766 0.4745 0.7426
Butyrate (%) 8.92 9.48 9.06 0.0033 0.4900 0.0630 0.9302
Valerate (%) 2.39 2.44 2.30 0.0012 0.7164 0.0607 0.2125
Isovalerate (%) 0.79 0.90 0.71 0.0009 0.4099 0.0588 0.5280