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Table 1 Biofilm and other virulence determinants of yeast isolated from Gallus gallus domesticus droppings

From: Diversity, in-vitro virulence traits and antifungal susceptibility pattern of gastrointestinal yeast flora of healthy poultry, Gallus gallus domesticus

Virulence determinants Yeast isolates
C. albicans (n = 7 c + 3 d ) C. catenulate (n = 3 c + 5 d ) C. tropicalis (n = 3 c + 3 d ) C. famata (n = 12 c + 17 d ) C. ciferrii (n = 8 c + 4 d ) C. pintolopesii (n = 0 c + 2 d ) C. parapsilosis (n = 0 c + 1 d ) C. krusei (n = 3 c + 0 d ) C. macerans (n = 1c + 2 d) G. candidum (n = 0 c + 4 d ) Trichosporon spp. (n = 5 c + 4 d ) R. minuta (n = 1 c + 0 d )
Colony count (CFU/g) Min = 2 × 106 Max = 7 × 106 M = 5 × 106 Min = 2.7 × 106 Max = 1.2 × 107 M = 6.6 × 106 Min = 3 × 106 Max = 2.3 × 107 M = 1.1 × 107 Min = 1.1× ×106 Max = 1.2 × 107 M = 5 × 106 Min = 3 × 106 Max = 1.9 × 107 M = 9 × 106 Min = 3 × 106 Max = 1.6 × 107 M = 9.5 × 106 Load = 1.1 × 107 Min = 1.1 × 106 Max = 5 × 106 M = 3 × 106 Min = 3 × 106 Max = 1.6 × 107 M = 8.3 × 106 Min = 2 × 106 Max = 4 × 106 M = 3.3 × 106 Min = 4 × 105 Max = 5 × 106 M = 3.3 × 106 Load = 2 × 106
Biofilm Positive 5 4 1 10 7 0 0 1 3 4 3 0
Biofilm Negative 5 4 5 19 5 2 1 2 0 0 6 1
DNAse Positive 1 3 0 4 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
DNAse Negative 9 5 6 25 11 2 1 3 2 4 8 1
Hemolysin Positive 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hemolysin Negative 10 8 6 29 12 2 1 3 3 4 9 1
Esterase Pz valuea             
 Very strong ≤0.69 6 1 0 5 2 0 1 2 1 1 0 0
 Strong 0.70–0.79 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Mild 10–19.9 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
 Weak 0.90–0.99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Negative >/= 1.0 4 7 6 24 8 2 0 1 2 3 8 0
Aspartyl proteinase Pz valuea             
 Very strong ≤0.69 2 0 1 8 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
 Strong 0.70–0.79 2 1 1 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
 Mild 0.80–0.90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Weak 0.90–0.99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Negative >/= 1.0 6 7 4 18 12 1 0 1 2 4 8 0
Phospholipase Pz valuea             
 Very strong ≤0.69 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
 Strong 0.70–0.79 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Mild 10–19.9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Weak 0.90–0.99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Negative >/= 1.0 8 7 6 29 2 2 1 3 2 4 9 1
CSH %             
 Very strong >30 6 5 4 12 10 1 0 2 2 2 6 0
 Strong 20–29.9 2 0 0 4 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
 Mild 10–19.9 1 2 0 5 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
 Weak 0.1–9.99 1 1 2 8 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0
 Negative < 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SOD H2O2 mMol             
 Very strong 50 4 3 1 11 5 0 1 2 2 4 5 0
 Strong 40 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
 Strong 30 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Mild 20 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
 Mild 10 2 2 2 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Weak 5 2 0 1 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0
 Negative No growth 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
  1. aPz value: the ratio of the colony diameter to the diameter of the activity halo; Min-minimum; Max-maximum; M-mean value; ccommercial G domesticus; ddomesticated G domesticus