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Table 6 Risk factors for S. aureus carriage at CSS-2

From: Short-term increase in prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus following mass drug administration with azithromycin for trachoma control

Characteristic N n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted ORa (95% CI) p-value
Pneumococcal carriage
 No 337 135 (40.1) 1   1  
 Yes 80 26 (32.5) 0.72 (0.67–0.77) <0.001 0.58 (0.46–0.72) <0.001
Age group
  < 10y 173 72 (41.6)     
  ≥ 10y 244 89 (36.5) 0.81 (0.54–1.2) 0.289 1.24 (0.74–2.07) 0.418
Gender
 Male 209 90 (43.1) 1   1  
 Female 208 71 (34.1) 0.69 (0.47–0.99) 0.044 0.75 (0.57–1.0) 0.050
Occupation
 None 162 67 (41.4) 1   1  
 Student 149 77 (51.7) 1.52 (1.32–1.74) <0.001 1.12 (0.73–1.71) 0.613
 Agriculture 104 17 (16.4) 0.28 (0.10–0.80) 0.017 0.2 (0.1–0.38) <0.001
Schooling (years)
 0 258 82 (31.8) 1    
 1–3 67 36 (53.7) 2.49 (1.62–3.84) <0.001   
 4–6 48 23 (47.9) 1.97 (0.65–6.02) 0.232   
  > 6 44 20 (45.5) 1.79 (1.51–2.12) <0.001   
Ability to read
 No 259 83 (32.1) 1    
 Yes 158 78 (49.3) 2.07 (1.20–3.56) 0.009   
Ability to write
 No 259 83 (32.1) 1    
 Yes 158 78 (49.4) 2.07 (1.20–3.56) 0.009   
Recentb health visit
 No 405 159 (39.3) 1   1  
 Yes 12 2 (16.7) 0.31 (0.22–0.43) <0.001 0.48 (0.45–0.52) <0.001
Recentb antibiotic use
 No 415 160 (38.6) 1    
 Yes 2 1 (50.0) 1.59 (0.04–59.03) 0.800   
Ethnicity (Jola)
 No 10 3 (30) 1   1  
 Yes 407 158 (38.8) 1.48 (1.04–2.10) 0.028 1.5 (1.09–2.08) 0.014
Active smoker
 No 405 159 (39.3) 1    
 Yes 12 2 (16.7) 0.31 (0.03–3.14)    
Smoker in household
 No 144 51 (35.4) 1    
 Yes 273 110 (40.3) 1.23 (0.63–2.42) 0.548   
  1. aMutually adjusted for pneumococcal carriage, age, gender, occupation and recent health care facility visit
  2. bWithin the last 30 days