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Table 1 Characteristics of sampling sites

From: Occurrence, diversity and community structure of culturable atrazine degraders in industrial and agricultural soils exposed to the herbicide in Shandong Province, P.R. China

Sites Geographic coordinates Atrazine historya Plants/Crop rotation Sowing datesa Atrazine treatment datea Atrazine (active ingredient) ratea, b, g ha−1 Atrazine residues, μg kg−1 Sampling date Plant growth stage
S1 N: 36.66361 E: 117.26151 No treatments for ≥ 20 years Miscellaneous wild herbs n/a n/a n/a 0.21 ± 0.03 April 08, 2013 dormancy
D3 N: 37.12418 E: 119.07188 7 years, industrial contamination Plantless soil n/a n/a n/a 2091.3 ± 60.0 May 29, 2013 n/a
D5 N: 37.12544 E: 119.07162 7 years, industrial contamination Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica (Linn.) Beauv.) n/a n/a n/a NAc May 29, 2013 3–5 leaves
D6 N: 37.12539 E: 119.07087 7 years, industrial contamination Common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) n/a n/a n/a 1.05 ± 0.13 May 29, 2013 2–3 leaves
TD(a) N: 35.96921 E: 117.06004 ≥20 years Maize/ annual rotation with winter wheat June 05–10 June 25–30 780 0.43 ± 0.06 July 22, 2013 9 leaves
TD(b) N: 35.96980 E: 117.05999 ≥20 years Maize/ annual rotation with winter wheat June 01–05 June 20–25 780 TAc July 22, 2013 11 leaves
DnW N: 35.07492 E: 115.64059 ≥5 years Maize/ annual rotation with winter wheat June 01–05 June 20–25 450 0.65 ± 0.08 July 22, 2013 10 leaves
DnL N: 35.09441 E: 115.66002 ≥5 years Maize/ annual rotation with winter wheat June 01–05 June 20–35 450 0.08 ± 0.02 July 23, 2013 11 leaves
GD N: 36.85381 E: 116.37587 ≥10 years Maize/ annual rotation with winter wheat June 18 July 04–05 950 TA August 14, 2013 pollen shed beginning
WS N: 37.23022 E: 116.11851 ≥15 years Maize/ annual rotation with winter wheat June 18 June 20 540 0.10 ± 0.02 August 14, 2013 pollen shed beginning
  1. aThe information was received from specialists of the local agriculture bureaus, managers of the farms, atrazine factory and academy campus
  2. bIn 2013
  3. c NA not analyzed, TA trace amount (0.01 < TA < 0.05 μg kg−1), n/a not applicable