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Table 1 Characteristics of participants classified as low and high macrophage particulate burden

From: Household air pollution and the lung microbiome of healthy adults in Malawi: a cross-sectional study

  Low particulate
(n = 23)
High particulate
(n = 21)
p
Age, mean years (SD) 29.2 (7.7) 34.1 (6.8) 0.03
Sex, female (%) 9 (39) 12 (57) 0.37
Ethnicity – African, n (%) 23 (100) 21 (100) -
BMI, mean (SD) 22.4 (4.2) 22.4 (2.6) 0.97
FEV1 % predicted, mean (SD) 96.2 (15.2) 98.2 (9.7) 0.62
FVC % predicted, mean (SD) 96.3 (15.1) 100.4 (9.5) 0.31
Cooking, n (%)
Electricity only 2 (8.7) 0 (0) 0.60
Charcoal stove 14 (60.9) 13 (61.9) .
Wood 7 (30.4) 8 (38.1) .
Lighting, n (%)
Electricity only 6 (26.1) 4 (19.1) 0.11
Candle mostly 10 (43.5) 4 (19.1) .
Paraffin mostly 7 (30.4) 13 (61.9) .
BAL differential count, % (SD)
Macrophage 95.5 (4.6) 95.3 (3.2) 0.85
Lymphocyte 4.0 (4.1) 4.2 (2.6) 0.87
Macrophage carbon, % (SD) 0.1 (0.1) 2.5 (1.8) <0.0001
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± SD. Significance testing used Fisher’s exact tests
  2. BMI Body Mass Index, SD standard deviation