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Table 2 Detailed information on C. difficile positive horses, including molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of the isolates

From: Faecal microbiota characterisation of horses using 16 rdna barcoded pyrosequencing, and carriage rate of clostridium difficile at hospital admission

C. difficile positive horses Isolates characterisation
Date of sampling Animal identification Age (years) Diagnostic Diarrhoea Hospital stay (days) Antibiotic treatment (days)e AINS treatment PCR-ribotype CE tcdA tcdB cdtA cdtB tcdC a gyrA b MUT PEN CC TE VA MXF RA LZE XNL
15/10/2013 01 9 Wound and tendon injury - 1 Pen-Gen-Xnl (1)f Dipyrone UCL237 + + - - I R I S S R
05/11/2013 03 16 Colicc - 1 - Flunixin meglumine UCL49 + + - - I R S S S R
12/11/2013 04 4 Colicd - 2 - - 014 + + - - I S S S S R
03/12/2013 09 9 Multiple wounds - 4 Pen-Gen (5)f Dipyrone UCL36 - - - - I R S S R R
09/12/2013 10 4 Proximal enteritis - 4 - Firocoxib Meloxidyl Dipyrone UCL23f + + - - I R S S S R
  1. MUT mutation
  2. CE cytotoxicity assay using confluent monolayer MRC-5 cells
  3. Gen gentamicin, Pen penicillin, CC clindamycin, TE tetracycline, VA vancomycin, MXF moxifloxacin, RA rifampicin, LZ metronidazole, E erythromycin, XNL ceftiofur
  4. Iintermediate antimicrobial resistance
  5. aPresence of deletions in the regulator gene tcdC (118 bp-39 bp-17 bp)
  6. bPresence of mutation in the gyrA gene associated with moxifloxacin resistance
  7. cColic secondary to a gaseous distension of the caecum and a retraction of the colon
  8. dColic secondary to a pelvic flexure impaction (suspicion of a digestive tract verminosis causing weight loss)
  9. eTime before antibiotic administration in days fAntibiotic treatment in progress at the time of sampling