Permeability and efflux of ethidium bromide. (A) Determination of the outer membrane permeability in H. pylori wild-type and isogenic mutants. Each measurement was repeated three times. *, P < 0.05 vs. wild-type, and **, P < 0.001 vs. wild-type. (B) Ethidium bromide accumulation assay. Cells were preloaded with 10 μg/ml ethidium bromide. At the 12-min time point, 10 μM of CCCP was added to the cells suspensions to assess energy-dependent efflux. CCCP was not added to the cells serving as controls (dotted lines). Each measurement was repeated three times.