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Table 1 Provenance of S. pneumoniae isolates used in this study

From: Seasonality and outbreak of a predominant Streptococcus pneumoniaeserotype 1 clone from The Gambia: Expansion of ST217 hypervirulent clonal complex in West Africa

Surveillance Method‡‡ Geographic Area‡‡ Year of study Age range studied Invasive, n (%) Carriage, n (%) Reference
Routine hospital surveillance Kombos, WR 1996–2003 1 day-78 years 93(73.2) - [1], this study
Treatment trial* URR & CRR 2004–2005 4–46 months - 7(19.4) This study
Hib vaccine trial** WR 1997–2002 < 6 years 26(20.5) - [9]
Pneumococcal vaccine trial* URR & CRR 2000–2004 2–29 months 8(6.3) - [13]
Pneumococcal vaccine trial* URR & CRR 2003–2005 12–23 months - 14(38.9) This study
Carriage study WR 2004–2006 0.5–70 years - 15(41.7) [7, 12]
Total - - - 127 (100) 36 (100)  
  1. Isolates were collected from patients who presented routinely to the MRC outpatient clinic in Fajara, The Kombos [1].
  2. *Isolates were collected during prospective studies or trials of vaccines or pneumonia case management regimens with a standardized surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease. Subjects may have been randomised to receive the nine-valent pneumococcal vaccine (5 isolates were from 4 PCV-vaccinated children and 3 isolates were from 2 non-PCV-vaccinated children) [9].or high dose amoxicillin [20], unpublished].
  3. **Subjects were investigated for invasive bacterial disease during the course of an Hib vaccine effectiveness study [13].
  4. n, refers to the number of serotype 1 isolates
  5. ‡‡Kombos (urban, rural, and peri-urban), WR; Western Region (urban), CRR; Central River Region (rural) and URR; Upper River Region (rural).
  6. Notes: There is one year overlap between invasive and carriage isolates