Defensin NP-1 time-kill assay. A] The rates of survival of strains 8656, wdpks1 Δ-1, and wdpks1 Δ-1-501 yeast cells grown for 7 days in YPD medium at 37°C after exposure to various concentrations of NP-1 for 30 min compared to those of fungal cells incubated in PBS. B] Survival of strain 8656 and wdpks1 Δ-1 after exposure to 1 μg/ml of NP-1 and of wdpks1 Δ-1 after exposure to 1 μg/ml NP-1 incubated with melanin particles derived from the gene deleted strain for 1 h prior to the use of the defensin solution in the assay. P value was calculated by comparing wdpks1 Δ-1 cells treated with NP-1 with or without pre-incubation with melanin particles using the Student's t test. Values are averages of the standard errors of the means for three measurements. *, p < 0.01.