Co-infection leads to altered pathogen-specific TH1 and TH2 immune responses. TH1 and TH2 cytokine concentrations were measured from 24 hour (A) E/S stimulated and (B) BCG-stimulated splenocyte cultures of co-infected (grey), T. muris-only (clear) and BCG-only (black) BALB/c mice infected according to the protocol illustrated in Figure 1A. Results from stimulated values were corrected for background unstimulated controls. Data display median ± min-max, representing 2–3 individual experiments of 5 animals per group. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. (*p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ns = non-significant).