Intracellular survival assays in J774 macrophages. A, Recovery rates of wild type L. hongkongensis HLHK9, HLHK9∆ureA, HLHK9∆arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9∆ureA/arcA1/arcA2 in J774 macrophages. B, Expression level of ADI genes (arcA1 and arcA2) and ureA gene of HLHK9 in macrophages. Error bars represent means ± SEM of three independent experiments. An asterisk indicates a significant difference (*, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001).