Human-derived Lactobacillus spp. suppress activation of C. difficile -induced transcription factors. Concentrations of activated NF-κB (A) and c-Jun (B) were determined by western blot on whole cell lysates of HT-29 cells stimulated with C. difficile with or without medium control or LCM treatment. Concentrations were measured at 15 and 30 min using antibodies corresponding to p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, β-actin, p-c-Jun, and c-Jun. Relative protein concentrations were determined by densitometry, and activated transcription factors were normalized to their non-activated counterpart (p-NF-κB p65 (Ser 536) to NF-κB p65; p-c-Jun to c-Jun). The results were from three independent experiments in duplicate and are expressed as the mean ± SEM, *p-value <0.05 and **p-value <0.01.