qRT-PCR Assay to Quantitate MAP from Infected BALB/c Mouse Tissues. Concentrations were determined using qRT-PCR analysis from large intestine and liver; The experimental groups analyzed were the following: Control (CNTRL); viable MAP (MAP); viable MAP with non-viable (killed) NP-51 (MAP + K-NP-51); viable MAP with viable (live) NP-51 (MAP + L-NP-51). For each experimental group n = 4. A: MAP Concentration in Large Intestinal Tissues. At DAY 180- there was a significant difference ‘*’ (P ≤ 0.05) between the following: males (M) with viable MAP compared to M with viable MAP and fed live NP-51 -MAP + L-NP-51. At DAY 135- several groups demonstrated significant differences including: between M MAP versus MAP + NP-51 (both L and K); similarly in females (F) in the same experimental groups were significantly different ‘*’ P ≤ 0.05; there were also notable differences ‘#’ (P ≤ 0.05) between M and F in the experimental groups MAP + NP-51 (both L and K). At DAY 90 among F, there was a significant difference ‘*’ (P ≤ 0.05) between MAP v. MAP + L-NP-51; between the sexes – F-MAP vs. M-MAP and M-MAP + L-NP-51. Animals that were infected with viable MAP (L-MAP) and viable or non-viable NP-51 (L or K NP-51) demonstrate less MAP viability at Day 90 compared to similar experimental conditions at Day 135 or Day 180; however there was no statistical difference between these differences at DAY 90. Concentrations of MAP in the large intestine were low. Additionally, there was no pathology associated with MAP infection in the intestinal tissues of animals infected with viable or non-viable MAP. These data demonstrate that there may be associations to sex in MAP infectivity of the intestinal tissues; however, to elucidate a clear correlation, further experiments will be conducted.