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Table 6 Predicted immunomodulatory activities

From: Computational approaches for discovery of common immunomodulators in fungal infections: towards broad-spectrum immunotherapeutic interventions

Gene Immunomodulatory Activity Pathogen Ref
 Immune response-inducing genes
MALT1 Inhibition of MALT1 stopped c-Rel activation and Th-17 immunity to Candida species C. albicans [33]
SERPINE1 SERPINE1 Inhibits plasmin formation. Plasmin bound C. albicans showed increased invasiveness. C. albicans [35]
ICAM1 Inhibition of ICAM-1 stopped adherence of C. albicans to human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) and resulted in a decreased activation of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 C. albicans [38]
IL8 see ICAM1   [38]
IL1A IL-1 α from C. albicans infected oral epithelial cells up-regulated secretion IL-8 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) C. albicans [41]
FYN FYN knockout mice were shown to have increased Th2 type immune response   [54]
STAT1 Defects in STAT1 result in defective Th17-type and Th1-type responses   [63, 64]
CCL2 Neutralizing CCL2 resulted in increased mortality and pathogen burden in the lungs of mice with invasive aspergillosis A. fumigatus [46]
MAP3K8 MAP3K8 deficient mice exhibited low-level of TNF- α and ERK production   [60]
MAP3K14 MAP3K14 Activated MAPKs   [61]
NFKB1 Component of NF- κB   
RELA Component of NF- κB   
EREG EREG is important in the proliferation and differentiation of macrophages. It was up-regulated when alveolar macrophages were challenged with conidia of A. fumigatus A. fumigatus [58]
IL12A Central for the induction of TH1-type cytokines   [63, 64]
TRIB3 TRIB3 senses the presence of cellular nutrient in PI3K/AKT signaling   [62]
CLCF1 Activates the Jak-STAT signaling cascade?   
LYN Inhibiting the ICAM-1-binding activity?   
 Immune response-repressing genes
PLAUR PLAUR promotes plasmin formation. Plasmin bound C. albicans showed increased invasiveness. C. albicans [35]
DUSP8 DUSP8 inhibits MAPK/ERK. Inactivation of MAPK/ERK correlated with a decrease in the activation of innate immunity against A. fumigatus in a mice model A. fumigatus [43]
DUSP6 DUSP6 inhibits MAPK/ERK (see DUSP8)   
SPRED2 SPRED2 inhibits MAPK/ERK (see DUSP8)   
NFKBIA Inhibits NF- κB. Inhibition of NF- κ decreased neutrophil phagocytosis and microbicide capacity C. albicans [50]
TNIP1 Inhibits NF- κB   [49]
PMP22 Up-regulation of Hedgehog pathway increased cellular permissiveness for hepatitis C virus replication   [52]
THBD Up-regulation of Hedgehog pathway increased cellular permissiveness for hepatitis C virus replication   [52]
  1. Genes and their predicted immunomodulatory activities for up-regulated bicluster B1.