The fim2 locus appears to contribute to biofilm formation when expressed in E. coli HB101. (A) Results for biofilm formation assay on polystyrene for KR2107 and its three fim and/or fim2 isogenic mutants as determined by crystal violet absorbance data. Equivalent results, suggestive of no strain-to-strain differences, were obtained for assays on polyvinyl chloride plates (data not shown). (B) Biofilm formation assay based on heterologous expression of fim2 in E. coli HB101/pFim2-Ptrc. HB101 and HB101 carrying an empty pJTOOL-7 served as controls. Biofilm formation was quantified using crystal violet staining and absorbance was measured at 595 nm. Non-normalized crystal violet absorbance data are shown. (C) Biofilm formation assay results shown in (B) were normalized to take account of pre-wash total cell numbers based on OD595 readings performed at 48 h, just prior to washing off non-surface adherent cells and crystal violet staining. Data shown in all cases represent means and standard deviations of three biological replicates, each assayed in eight wells (n = 24). An asterisk indicates a highly significant difference (P < 0.0001) from HB101 and HB101/pJTOOL-7.