Activation of JNK, p38 and ERK is mediated by TTSS1. Caco-2 and HeLa cells were co-incubated with V. parahaemolyticus WT RIMD2210633, ΔvscN1, ΔvscN2 and Δvp1680 for 2 h or with anisomycin for 30 min. Immunoblotting of cell lysates was performed as described in Figure 1. A. Representative image of MAPK immunoblot. Results are representative of at least three independent experiments. B. Quantification of MAPK activation in Caco-2 cells. Results are expressed as the ratio of phospho-MAPK to total MAPK and as relative to levels in Caco-2 cells alone. Results indicate mean ± SEM of three independent experiments.