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  1. The M-like protein, also known as SzP, is expressed on the surface of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus). Previous studies demonstrated that SzP is similar to M protein of group A Streptoc...

    Authors: Hongjie Fan, Yongshan Wang, Fuyu Tang and Chengping Lu

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:170

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin, a carotenoid with high commercial interest. The proposed biosynthetic route in this organism is isopentenyl-pyrophosphate (IPP) → geranyleranyl pyr...

    Authors: Jennifer Alcaíno, Salvador Barahona, Marisela Carmona, Carla Lozano, Andrés Marcoleta, Mauricio Niklitschek, Dionisia Sepúlveda, Marcelo Baeza and Víctor Cifuentes

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:169

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Photorhabdus are motile members of the family Enterobactericeae that are pathogenic to insect larvae whilst also maintaining a mutualistic interaction with entomophagous nematodes of the family Heterorhabditiae. ...

    Authors: Catherine A Easom and David J Clarke

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:168

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has previously been characterized as a micro-organism that is genetically highly stable. In spite of this genetic stability, homologous DNA recombination has been hypothesized to lie at the ...

    Authors: Marcel Sluijter, Theo Hoogenboezem, Nico G Hartwig and Cornelis Vink

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:167

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Highly virulent enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains possess three sodC genes encoding for periplasmic Cu, Zn superoxide dismutases: sodC, which is identical to the gene present in non-pathogenic E....

    Authors: Melania D'Orazio, Raffaella Scotti, Laura Nicolini, Laura Cervoni, Giuseppe Rotilio, Andrea Battistoni and Roberta Gabbianelli

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:166

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 is covered by a regular surface (S-) layer consisting of a 435 amino acid protein SlpA. This protein is completely unrelated in sequence to the previously characterized S-layer prot...

    Authors: Silja Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Ulla Hynönen, Nicola Ilk, Dietmar Pum, Uwe B Sleytr and Airi Palva

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:165

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease, is a serious pathogen of rice. Here we describe a fluorescent marker system to study virulence and pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryza...

    Authors: Sang-Wook Han, Chang-Jin Park, Sang-Won Lee and Pamela C Ronald

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:164

    Content type: Methodology article

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  8. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine seafood-borne pathogen causing gastrointestinal disorders in humans. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are known as major virulence determinan...

    Authors: Wataru Yamazaki, Masanori Ishibashi, Ryuji Kawahara and Kiyoshi Inoue

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:163

    Content type: Methodology article

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  9. Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans. It produces several virulence factors, of which the fimbriae are considered adhesins and elicit immune responses in the host. B. pertussis has th...

    Authors: Eriikka Heikkinen, Dorothy K Xing, Rose-Marie Ölander, Jukka Hytönen, Matti K Viljanen, Jussi Mertsola and Qiushui He

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:162

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Probiotics such as bifidobacteria have been shown to maintain a healthy intestinal microbial balance and help protect against infections. However, despite these benefits, bifidobacteria still remain poorly und...

    Authors: Michelle Cronin, Roy D Sleator, Colin Hill, Gerald F Fitzgerald and Douwe van Sinderen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:161

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The prokaryotic FAD synthetase family – a group of bifunctional enzymes that catalyse riboflavin phosphorylation and FMN adenylylation within a single polypeptide chain- was analysed in terms of sequence and s...

    Authors: Susana Frago, Marta Martínez-Júlvez, Ana Serrano and Milagros Medina

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:160

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Bacillus anthracis has two major virulence factors: a tripartite toxin that produces lethal and edema toxins and a polyglutamic acid capsule. A recent report suggested that a toxin belonging to the cholesterol de...

    Authors: Antonio Nakouzi, Johanna Rivera, Richard F Rest and Arturo Casadevall

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:159

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The response to heat shock is involved in pathogenesis, as this pathogen switches from myceliu...

    Authors: André M Nicola, Rosângela V Andrade, Alessandra S Dantas, Patrícia A Andrade, Fabrício BM Arraes, Larissa Fernandes, Ildinete Silva-Pereira and Maria Sueli S Felipe

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:158

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Candida species have become the fourth most-frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, rapid identification of pathogenic fungi to species level has been conside...

    Authors: Véronique Apaire-Marchais, Marie Kempf, Corinne Lefrançois, Agnès Marot, Patricia Licznar, Jane Cottin, Daniel Poulain and Raymond Robert

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:157

    Content type: Methodology article

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  15. A real-time multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of multiple Salmonella serotypes in chicken samples. Poultry-associated serotypes detected in the assay include Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Typhimurium...

    Authors: Edel O'Regan, Evonne McCabe, Catherine Burgess, Sheila McGuinness, Thomas Barry, Geraldine Duffy, Paul Whyte and Séamus Fanning

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:156

    Content type: Methodology article

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  16. The hfq gene is conserved in a wide variety of bacteria and Hfq is involved in many cellular functions such as stress responses and the regulation of gene expression. It has also been reported that Hfq is involve...

    Authors: Masayuki Nakano, Akira Takahashi, Zehong Su, Nagakatsu Harada, Kazuaki Mawatari and Yutaka Nakaya

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:155

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Yersinia outer protein (Yop) H is a secreted virulence factor of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye), which inhibits phagocytosis of Ye and contributes to the virulence of Ye in mice. The aim of this study was to addres...

    Authors: Gianluca Matteoli, Edda Fahl, Philipp Warnke, Steffen Müller, Michael Bonin, Ingo B Autenrieth and Erwin Bohn

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:153

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Tularemia was reported in China over 50 years ago, however, many epidemical characteristics remain unclear. In the present study, the prevalence of Francisella tularensis in ticks was investigated during an epide...

    Authors: Fang Zhang, Wei Liu, Xiao-Ming Wu, Zhong-Tao Xin, Qiu-Min Zhao, Hong Yang and Wu-Chun Cao

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:152

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Mouse virulence assessments of certain Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants have revealed an immunopathology defect in which high tissue CFU counts are observed but the tissue pathology and lethality are reduced. M...

    Authors: Khairul-Bariah Abdul-Majid, Lan H Ly, Paul J Converse, Deborah E Geiman, David N McMurray and William R Bishai

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:151

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of life threatening diseases in humans and the incidence of such infections is high in developing countries like India. Although distribution of emm types of GAS ...

    Authors: Vivek Sagar, Rajesh Kumar, Nirmal K Ganguly and Anuradha Chakraborti

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:150

    Content type: Research article

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  21. To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with A...

    Authors: Gilles Brackman, Tom Defoirdt, Carol Miyamoto, Peter Bossier, Serge Van Calenbergh, Hans Nelis and Tom Coenye

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:149

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Predicting antibiotic resistance before it emerges at clinical settings constitutes a novel approach for preventing and fighting resistance of bacterial pathogens. To analyse the possibility that novel plasmid...

    Authors: María B Sánchez, Alvaro Hernández, José M Rodríguez-Martínez, Luis Martínez-Martínez and José L Martínez

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:148

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The staphylococcal QacA multidrug efflux protein confers resistance to an exceptional number of structurally unrelated antimicrobial compounds. Aromatic amino acid residues have been shown to be highly importa...

    Authors: Jingqin Wu, Karl A Hassan, Ronald A Skurray and Melissa H Brown

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:147

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a zoonotic pathogen, which can be found in many sources including animals and the environment. However, little is known about the molecular relatedness...

    Authors: Seongbeom Cho, Thomas S Whittam, David J Boxrud, Joanne M Bartkus and A Mahdi Saeed

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:146

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious human bacterial pathogens. It is phagocytosed by immune cells, such as monocytes and macrophages. The precise mechanisms tha...

    Authors: Monique Barel, Ara G Hovanessian, Karin Meibom, Jean-Paul Briand, Marion Dupuis and Alain Charbit

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:145

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) are characterized by their ability to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions in the gut mucosa of human and animal hosts leading to diarrhoea. The genetic determ...

    Authors: Erik Fröhlicher, Gladys Krause, Claudio Zweifel, Lothar Beutin and Roger Stephan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:144

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare...

    Authors: Esther Jiménez, Susana Delgado, Antonio Maldonado, Rebeca Arroyo, Mar Albújar, Natalia García, Manel Jariod, Leonides Fernández, Adolfo Gómez and Juan M Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:143

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Cyanopeptolins are nonribosomally produced heptapetides showing a highly variable composition. The cyanopeptolin synthetase operon has previously been investigated in three strains from the genera Microcystis, Pl...

    Authors: Trine B Rounge, Thomas Rohrlack, Tom Kristensen and Kjetill S Jakobsen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:141

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus (GBS)) is an important human pathogen, particularly of newborns. Emerging evidence for a relationship between genotype and virulence has accentuated the need for ef...

    Authors: Erin Honsa, Thomas Fricke, Alex J Stephens, Danny Ko, Fanrong Kong, Gwendolyn L Gilbert, Flavia Huygens and Philip M Giffard

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:140

    Content type: Methodology article

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  30. Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also known to be involved in certain diseases, such as acne vulgaris and infections of orthopaedic implants. Treatment of these conditions is complicate...

    Authors: Rolf Lood, Matthias Mörgelin, Anna Holmberg, Magnus Rasmussen and Mattias Collin

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:139

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Cell-to-cell communication (also referred to as quorum sensing) based on N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) is a widespread response to environmental change in Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs seem to be highly variab...

    Authors: Cristina García-Aljaro, Leo Eberl, Kathrin Riedel and Anicet R Blanch

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:138

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Protein A, protein G and protein L are three well-defined immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding proteins (IBPs), which show affinity for specific sites on Ig of mammalian hosts. Although the precise functions of these m...

    Authors: Hua Yang, Jie Cao, Lian-Qing Li, Xia Zhou, Qiu-Li Chen, Wen-Ting Liao, Zong-Mei Wen, Shao-Hua Jiang, Rong Xu, Jian-An Jia, Xin Pan, Zhong-Tian Qi and Wei Pan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:137

    Content type: Methodology article

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  33. Following genital chlamydial infection, an early T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated immune response precedes the activation and recruitment of specific Th1 cells bearing distinct chemokine receptors, subsequentl...

    Authors: Senthilkumar K Sakthivel, Udai P Singh, Shailesh Singh, Dennis D Taub, Joseph U Igietseme and James W Lillard Jr

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:136

    Content type: Research article

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  34. In Tanzania, little is known on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Authors: Omar JM Hamza, Mecky IN Matee, Mainen J Moshi, Elison NM Simon, Ferdinand Mugusi, Frans HM Mikx, Wim H van Palenstein Helderman, Antonius JMM Rijs, André JAM van der Ven and Paul E Verweij

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:135

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Many microbes possess restriction-modification systems that protect them from parasitic DNA molecules. Unfortunately, the presence of a restriction-modification system in a given microbe also hampers genetic a...

    Authors: Neil Hobson, Nancy L Price, Jordan D Ward and Tracy L Raivio

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:134

    Content type: Methodology article

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  36. A disrupted cell cycle progression of hepatocytes was reported in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which can contribute significantly in the associated pathogenesis. The present study aimed to furthe...

    Authors: Saira Sarfraz, Saeed Hamid, Anwar Siddiqui, Snawar Hussain, Shahid Pervez and Graeme Alexander

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:133

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The aim of the study was to detect whether in experimental Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 in combination with fluoroquinolone therapy would eradicate S. Typhi...

    Authors: Kai Truusalu, Raik-Hiio Mikelsaar, Paul Naaber, Tõnis Karki, Tiiu Kullisaar, Mihkel Zilmer and Marika Mikelsaar

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:132

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In vitro studies with cell line infection models are beginning to disclose the strategies that Neisseria meningitidis uses to survive and multiply inside the environment of the infected host cell. The goal of thi...

    Authors: Adelfia Talà, Mario De Stefano, Cecilia Bucci and Pietro Alifano

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:131

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Several methods have been reported for strain typing of Mycoplasma genitalium. The value of these methods has never been comparatively assessed. The aims of this study were: 1) to identify new potential genetic m...

    Authors: Liang Ma, Stephanie Taylor, Jørgen S Jensen, Leann Myers, Rebecca Lillis and David H Martin

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:130

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Staphylococcus aureus expresses several proteases, which are thought to contribute to the virulence of this bacterium. Here we focus on aureolysin, the major thermolysin-like metalloprotease. Despite the importan...

    Authors: Artur J Sabat, Benedykt Wladyka, Klaudia Kosowska-Shick, Hajo Grundmann, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Julia Kowal, Peter C Appelbaum, Adam Dubin and Waleria Hryniewicz

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:129

    Content type: Research article

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  41. All aerobically grown living cells are exposed to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). A major damage by ROS to proteins is caused by covalent modifications of methionine residues giving methioni...

    Authors: CongHui You, Agnieszka Sekowska, Olivera Francetic, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete, YiPing Wang and Antoine Danchin

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:128

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Leifsonia xyli is a xylem-inhabiting bacterial species comprised of two subspecies: L. xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and L. xyli subsp. cynodontis (Lxc). Lxx is the causal agent of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane c...

    Authors: Marcelo M Zerillo, Marie-Anne Van Sluys, Luis Eduardo A Camargo and Claudia B Monteiro-Vitorello

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:127

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Type 1 fimbriae are the most commonly found fimbrial appendages on the outer membrane of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Previous investigations indicate that static broth culture favours S. Typhimurium...

    Authors: Yin-Ching Chuang, Ke-Chuan Wang, Yi-Tseng Chen, Chia-Huei Yang, Shang-Chin Men, Chia-Chun Fan, Li-Huan Chang and Kuang-Sheng Yeh

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:126

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The microbiota of an animal's intestinal tract plays important roles in the animal's overall health, productivity and well-being. There is still a scarcity of information on the microbial diversity in the gut ...

    Authors: Scot E Dowd, Todd R Callaway, Randall D Wolcott, Yan Sun, Trevor McKeehan, Robert G Hagevoort and Thomas S Edrington

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:125

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a human pathogen that is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. It harbours a large number of lipoprotein genes, most of which are of unknown function. Because of their location ...

    Authors: Katri M Hallamaa, Sen-Lin Tang, Nino Ficorilli and Glenn F Browning

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:124

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Comparative morphological studies and environmental sequencing surveys indicate that marine benthic environments contain a diverse assortment of microorganisms that are just beginning to be explored and charac...

    Authors: Chitchai Chantangsi, Heather J Esson and Brian S Leander

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:123

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague and a potential agent of bioterrorism and biowarfare. The plague biothreat and the emergence of multidrug-resistant plague underscore the need to increase our unde...

    Authors: Karen L Stirrett, Julian A Ferreras, Sebastian M Rossi, Richard L Moy, Fabio V Fonseca and Luis EN Quadri

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:122

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The sequenced genomes of the Brucella spp. have two urease operons, ure-1 and ure-2, but there is evidence that only one is responsible for encoding an active urease. The present work describes the purification a...

    Authors: Araceli Contreras-Rodriguez, Jose Quiroz-Limon, Ana M Martins, Humberto Peralta, Eric Avila-Calderon, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Stephen M Boyle and Ahide Lopez-Merino

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2008 8:121

    Content type: Research article

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