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  1. Content type: Methodology article

    Synthesis of cationic hydrous thorium dioxide colloids (ca. 1.0 to 1.7 nm) has been originally described by Müller [22] and Groot [11] and these have been used by Groot to stain acidic glucosaminoglycans for ultr...

    Authors: Heinrich Lünsdorf, Ingeborg Kristen and Elke Barth

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:59

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. However, up to now l...

    Authors: Jean-Philippe Mange, Roger Stephan, Nicole Borel, Peter Wild, Kwang Sik Kim, Andreas Pospischil and Angelika Lehner

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:58

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Recently, a propanol-based hand rub has been described to exceed the efficacy requirements of the European standard EN 12791 in only 1.5 min significantly. But the effect of a 1 min preceding hand wash and the...

    Authors: Nils-Olaf Hübner, Günter Kampf, Philipp Kamp, Thomas Kohlmann and Axel Kramer

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:57

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Wangiella dermatitidis is a human pathogenic fungus that is an etiologic agent of phaeohyphomycosis. W. dermatitidis produces a black pigment that has been identified as a dihydroxynaphthalene melanin and the pro...

    Authors: William F Paolo Jr, Ekaterina Dadachova, Piyali Mandal, Arturo Casadevall, Paul J Szaniszlo and Joshua D Nosanchuk

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:55

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  5. Content type: Methodology article

    The β-proteobacterial species Comamonas testosteroni is capable of biotransformation and also biodegradation of a range of chemical compounds and thus potentially useful in chemical manufacturing and bioremediati...

    Authors: Stephan Bathe and Martina Hausner

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:54

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Bacterial populations contain persisters, phenotypic variants that constitute approximately 1% of cells in stationary phase and biofilm cultures. Multidrug tolerance of persisters is largely responsible for th...

    Authors: Devang Shah, Zhigang Zhang, Arkady B Khodursky, Niilo Kaldalu, Kristi Kurg and Kim Lewis

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:53

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Leptospira interrogans is an important mammalian pathogen. Transmission from an environmental source requires adaptation to a range of new environmental conditions in the organs and tissues of the infected host. ...

    Authors: Jin-Hong Qin, Yue-Ying Sheng, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Yao-Zhou Shi, Ping He, Bao-Yu Hu, Yang Yang, Shi-Gui Liu, Guo-Ping Zhao and Xiao-Kui Guo

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:51

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning is caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A isolates that typically possess high spore heat-resistance. The molecular basis for C. perfringens spore heat-resis...

    Authors: Deepa Raju, Michael Waters, Peter Setlow and Mahfuzur R Sarker

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:50

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The lack of detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of many biowarfare agents poses an immediate challenge to biodefense efforts. Many potential bioweapons have been shown to affect the cellular path...

    Authors: Brandon W Higgs, John Dileo, Wenling E Chang, Haley B Smith, Olivia J Peters, Rasha Hammamieh, Marti Jett and Jordan C Feidler

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:48

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has pre...

    Authors: Anders Johansson, Anna Aspan, Elisabeth Bagge, Viveca Båverud, Björn E Engström and Karl-Erik Johansson

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:47

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causative agent of the human disease melioidosis. To understand the evolutionary mechanisms contributing to Bp virulence, we performed a comparati...

    Authors: Yiting Yu, H Stanley Kim, Hui Hoon Chua, Chi Ho Lin, Siew Hoon Sim, Daoxun Lin, Alan Derr, Reinhard Engels, David DeShazer, Bruce Birren, William C Nierman and Patrick Tan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:46

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Giardia intestinalis is a parasitic protozoan and major cause of diarrhoeal disease. Disease transmission is dependent on the ability of the parasite to differentiate back and forth between an intestine-colonisin...

    Authors: Siân SE Cox, Mark van der Giezen, Sarah J Tarr, Mark R Crompton and Jorge Tovar

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:45

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The multilocus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) technique has been developed for fine typing of many bacterial species. The genomic sequences of Neisseria meningitidis strains Z2491, MC58 and ...

    Authors: Jui-Cheng Liao, Chun-Chin Li and Chien-Shun Chiou

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:44

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 express type-2 fimbriae (FimA subunit polymers) with variant Galβ binding specificities and Actinomyces odontolyticus a sialic acid specificity to colonize different ora...

    Authors: Mirva Drobni, Kristina Hallberg, Ulla Öhman, Anna Birve, Karina Persson, Ingegerd Johansson and Nicklas Strömberg

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:43

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba is often a fatal human disease. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Acanthamoeba encephalitis remain unclear. In this study, the role of extrace...

    Authors: James Sissons, Selwa Alsam, Graham Goldsworthy, Mary Lightfoot, Edward L Jarroll and Naveed Ahmed Khan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:42

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Most of the studies evaluating the secular trends of blood isolates come from tertiary hospitals in urban areas. We sought to study the trends of the antimicrobial resistance of blood isolates in patients from...

    Authors: Matthew E Falagas, Alexandra Bakossi, Vasilis D Pappas, Pierros V Holevas, Antonis Bouras and Eleni Stamata

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:41

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Restriction/modification systems provide the dual function of protecting host DNA against restriction by methylation of appropriate bases within their recognition sequences, and restriction of foreign invading...

    Authors: Jonathan O'Driscoll, Daniel F Heiter, Geoffrey G Wilson, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Richard Roberts and Douwe van Sinderen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:40

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  18. Content type: Methodology article

    Inserting transgenes into bacterial chromosomes is generally quite involved, requiring a selection for cells carrying the insertion, usually for drug-resistance, or multiple cumbersome manipulations, or both. ...

    Authors: Gregory J McKenzie and Nancy L Craig

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:39

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, has a wide host range. Few epidemiological tools are available, and they are often expensive or not easily standardized across laboratories. In this work, C. bur...

    Authors: Nathalie Arricau-Bouvery, Yolande Hauck, Awatef Bejaoui, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, Christelle C Bodier, Armel Souriau, Hermann Meyer, Heinrich Neubauer, Annie Rodolakis and Gilles Vergnaud

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:38

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Streptococcus mutans produces bacteriocins named mutacins. Studies of mutacins have always been hampered by the difficulties in obtaining active liquid preparations of these substances. Some of them were found to...

    Authors: Guillaume Nicolas, Hélène Morency, Gisèle LaPointe and Marc C Lavoie

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:36

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  21. Content type: Methodology article

    The establishment of the cellular localization of proteins in M. tuberculosis will provide of valuable information for the identification of new drug/vaccine/diagnostic targets. Cytolocalization by inmunofluoresc...

    Authors: Mena Cimino, Lorenzo Alamo and Leiria Salazar

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:35

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Bacillus anthracis is considered to be a recently emerged clone within the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. The B. anthracis genome sequence contains four putative lambdoid prophages. We undertook this study in ...

    Authors: Shanmuga Sozhamannan, Michael D Chute, Farrell D McAfee, Derrick E Fouts, Arya Akmal, Darrell R Galloway, Alfred Mateczun, Leslie W Baillie and Timothy D Read

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:34

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  23. Content type: Methodology article

    The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) Analysis (ML...

    Authors: Florigio Lista, Giovanni Faggioni, Samina Valjevac, Andrea Ciammaruconi, Josée Vaissaire, Claudine le Doujet, Olivier Gorgé, Riccardo De Santis, Alessandra Carattoli, Alessandra Ciervo, Antonio Fasanella, Francesco Orsini, Raffaele D'Amelio, Christine Pourcel, Antonio Cassone and Gilles Vergnaud

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:33

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of antecedent infection in post-infectious neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barré (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndromes (MFS). GBS and MFS are probably induced by molecu...

    Authors: Peggy CR Godschalk, Mathijs P Bergman, Raymond FJ Gorkink, Guus Simons, Nicole van den Braak, Albert J Lastovica, Hubert P Endtz, Henri A Verbrugh and Alex van Belkum

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:32

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  25. Content type: Database

    Transcriptional regulation processes are the principal mechanisms of adaptation in prokaryotes. In these processes, the regulatory proteins and the regulatory DNA signals located in extragenic regions are the ...

    Authors: Eduardo Pareja, Pablo Pareja-Tobes, Marina Manrique, Eduardo Pareja-Tobes, Javier Bonal and Raquel Tobes

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:29

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an emergent pathogen associated with ingestion of infant formula and accurate identification is important in both industrial and clinical settings. Bacterial species can be difficult to ...

    Authors: Carol Iversen, Lee Lancashire, Michael Waddington, Stephen Forsythe and Graham Ball

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:28

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The Salmonella enterica BarA-SirA, the Erwinia carotovora ExpS-ExpA, the Vibrio cholerae BarA-VarA and the Pseudomonas spp GacS-GacA all belong to the same orthologous family of two-component systems as the Esche...

    Authors: Henrik Tomenius, Anna-Karin Pernestig, Kristina Jonas, Dimitris Georgellis, Roland Möllby, Staffan Normark and Öjar Melefors

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:27

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is the foremost oral pathogen of adult periodontitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of bacterial invasion and the resultant destruction of the gingival tissue remain largely undefined...

    Authors: Sonya Urnowey, Toshihiro Ansai, Vira Bitko, Koji Nakayama, Tadamichi Takehara and Sailen Barik

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:26

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfl...

    Authors: Andrea Johner, Stefan Kunz, Markus Linder, Yasmin Shakur and Thomas Seebeck

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:25

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR...

    Authors: Karine Brudey, Jeffrey R Driscoll, Leen Rigouts, Wolfgang M Prodinger, Andrea Gori, Sahal A Al-Hajoj, Caroline Allix, Liselotte Aristimuño, Jyoti Arora, Viesturs Baumanis, Lothar Binder, Patricia Cafrune, Angel Cataldi, Soonfatt Cheong, Roland Diel, Christopher Ellermeier…

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:23

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus can usually be distinguished by standard microbiological methods (e.g., motility, hemolysis, penicillin susceptibility and susceptibility to gamma phage) and PCR. However, w...

    Authors: Chung K Marston, Jay E Gee, Tanja Popovic and Alex R Hoffmaster

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:22

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  32. Content type: Software

    Simple computerized methods that analyse variability along alignments of nucleotide or amino acid sequences can be very useful in a clinical microbiology laboratory for two main purposes. First, to optimize pr...

    Authors: Philippe Colson, Catherine Tamalet and Didier Raoult

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:21

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Cereulide, a depsipeptide structurally related to valinomycin, is responsible for the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease caused by Bacillus cereus. Recently, it has been shown that this toxin is produced by ...

    Authors: Monika Ehling-Schulz, Martina Fricker, Harald Grallert, Petra Rieck, Martin Wagner and Siegfried Scherer

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:20

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Over the last decades molecular biologic techniques have been developed to alter the genome and proteome of Tetrahymena thermophila thereby providing the basis for recombinant protein expression including functio...

    Authors: Lutz Herrmann, Michael Erkelenz, Ingo Aldag, Arno Tiedtke and Marcus WW Hartmann

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:19

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Flow cytometry based adherence assay is a potentially powerful but little used method in the study of bacterial binding to host structures. We have previously characterized a glycoprotein-binding activity in Stre...

    Authors: Jukka Hytönen, Sauli Haataja and Jukka Finne

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:18

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  36. Content type: Research article

    It has been reported that some marine cyanophage are temperate and can be induced from a lysogenic phase to a lytic phase by different agents such as heavy metals. However, to date no significant reports have ...

    Authors: Lee H Lee, Doris Lui, Patricia J Platner, Shi-Fang Hsu, Tin-Chun Chu, John J Gaynor, Quinn C Vega and Bonnie K Lustigman

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:17

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Prevention of a possible avian influenza pandemic necessitates the development of rapid diagnostic tests and the eventual production of a vaccine.

    Authors: Nitar Nwe, Qigai He, Sudarat Damrongwatanapokin, Qingyun Du, Ivanus Manopo, Yukol Limlamthong, Beau James Fenner, Lynn Spencer and Jimmy Kwang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:16

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  38. Content type: Methodology article

    Enterobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. The current FDA detection...

    Authors: Angelika Lehner, Sabine Nitzsche, Pieter Breeuwer, Benjamin Diep, Karin Thelen and Roger Stephan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:15

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Arginine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is elevated in response to nutrient limitation, stress or arginine restriction. Though control of the pathway in response to arginine limitation is largely modulated by t...

    Authors: Jeevaka P Weerasinghe, Tao Dong, Michael R Schertzberg, Mark G Kirchhof, Yuan Sun and Herb E Schellhorn

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:14

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Brucella is an intracellular pathogen capable of infecting animals and humans. There are six recognized species of Brucella that differ in their host preference. The genomes of the three Brucella species have bee...

    Authors: Vladyslava G Ratushna, David M Sturgill, Sheela Ramamoorthy, Sherry A Reichow, Yongqun He, Raju Lathigra, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Shirley M Halling, Stephen M Boyle and Cynthia J Gibas

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:13

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Among the 17 genes encoding autotransporter proteins of the "surface cell antigen" (sca) family in the currently sequenced Rickettsia genomes, ompA, sca 5 (ompB) and sca 4 (gene D), have been extensively used for...

    Authors: Maxime Ngwamidiba, Guillaume Blanc, Didier Raoult and Pierre-Edouard Fournier

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:12

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important source of genetic variation among Neisseria species and has contributed to the spread of resistance to penicillin and sulfonamide drugs in the pathogen Neisseria meningiti...

    Authors: Yvonne Qvarnstrom and Gote Swedberg

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:11

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) persistently infects and survives within the host macrophages. While it is established that substantial genotypic var...

    Authors: Harish K Janagama, Kwang il Jeong, Vivek Kapur, Paul Coussens and Srinand Sreevatsan

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2006 6:10

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