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Microbe-host interactions and microbial pathogenicity

Section edited by David Nelson

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of microbe-host interactions and pathogenicity including pathogenic mechanisms, virulence factors, host invasion, immune evasion, host defence, immunity, immunology and symbiotic interactions.

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  1. Study of a clinic case reveals that alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is related to CD4+ T cell count decline and AIDS progression, suggesting that AAT might be an endogenous inhibitor of HIV/AIDS. Previous...

    Authors: Xueyuan Zhou, Zhu Liu, Jun Zhang, Joseph W. Adelsberger, Jun Yang and Gregory F. Burton

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:172

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Pet is a toxin from the family of Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae which was initially identified in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains. This protease exhibits enterotoxin properties...

    Authors: L. M. Rocha-Ramírez, U. Hernández-Chiñas, D. Baños-Rojas, J. Xicohtencatl-Cortés, M. E. Chávez-Berrocal, G. Rico-Rosillo, R. Kretschmer and C. A. Eslava

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:158

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes several human diseases, including pneumonia and meningitis, in which pathology is associated with an excessive inflammatory response. A major inducer of...

    Authors: Denja Baumgartner, Suzanne Aebi, Denis Grandgirard, Stephen L. Leib, Annette Draeger, Eduard Babiychuk and Lucy J. Hathaway

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:154

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Leptospira interrogans is a spirochaete responsible for leptospirosis in mammals. The molecular mechanisms of the Leptospira virulence remain mostly unknown. Recently, it has been demo...

    Authors: Joanna Krajewska, Zbigniew Arent, Daniel Więckowski, Michal Zolkiewski and Sabina Kędzierska-Mieszkowska

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:151

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are a subset of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) produced by plant pathogens to degrade plant cell walls. To counteract PCWDEs, plants release PCWDEs inhibitor prot...

    Authors: Hao-Xun Chang, Craig R. Yendrek, Gustavo Caetano-Anolles and Glen L. Hartman

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:147

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Microbiology 2017 17:110

  6. Similar to Gram-negative organisms, Borrelia spirochetes are dual-membrane organisms with both an inner and outer membrane. Although the outer membrane contains integral membrane proteins, few of the borrelial ou...

    Authors: Melisha R. Kenedy, Edgar J. Scott II, Binu Shrestha, Arvind Anand, Henna Iqbal, Justin D. Radolf, David W. Dyer and Darrin R. Akins

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:141

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The exopolysaccharide xanthan is a natural product which is extensively used in industry. It is a thickening agent in many fields, from oil recovery to the food sector. Xanthan is produced by the Gram negative...

    Authors: Tim Steffens, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Marco Giampà, Gerd Hublik, Alfred Pühler and Karsten Niehaus

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:93

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens mediate host-microbe interactions via utilization of the type III secretion (T3S) system. The T3S system is a complex molecular machine consisting of more than 20 protein...

    Authors: R. Ryan McNally, Quan Zeng and George W. Sundin

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:88

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Fusobacterium nucleatum, a well studied bacterium in periodontal diseases, appendicitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis and pregnancy complications has recently gained attention due to its ...

    Authors: Amit Kumar, Pragna Lakshmi Thotakura, Basant Kumar Tiwary and Ramadas Krishna

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:84

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Staphylococcus aureus gene expression has been sparsely studied in deep-sited infections in humans. Here, we characterized the staphylococcal transcriptome in vivo and the joint fluid ...

    Authors: Yijuan Xu, Raluca Georgiana Maltesen, Lone Heimann Larsen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Vang Quy Le, Jeppe Lund Nielsen, Per Halkjær Nielsen, Trine Rolighed Thomsen and Kåre Lehmann Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:80

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Enteric methane from rumen methanogens is responsible for 25.9 % of total methane emissions in the United States. Rumen methanogens also contribute to decreased animal feed efficiency. For methane mitigation s...

    Authors: Laura M. Cersosimo, Melissa L. Bainbridge, Jana Kraft and André-Denis G. Wright

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:78

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Free-living amoebae (FLA) and particularly acanthamoebae serve as vehicles and hosts for Legionella pneumophila, among other pathogenic microorganisms. Within the amoebae, L. pneumophila activates a complex regul...

    Authors: Elisabeth Dietersdorfer, Sílvia Cervero-Aragó, Regina Sommer, Alexander K. Kirschner and Julia Walochnik

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:74

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause extraintestinal diseases in birds, leading to substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Bacteria that invade cells can overcome the host humora...

    Authors: Livia Pilatti, Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva, Thaís Cabrera Galvão Rojas, Janaína Luisa Leite, Rogério Arcuri Conceição, Gerson Nakazato and Wanderley Dias da Silveira

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:35

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Lyme borrelia genotypes differ in their capacity to cause disseminated disease. Gene array analysis was employed to profile the host transcriptome induced by Borrelia burgdorferi strains with different capacities...

    Authors: Mary M. Petzke, Radha Iyer, Andrea C. Love, Zoe Spieler, Andrew Brooks and Ira Schwartz

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:29

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Classical strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Typhimurium) predominantly cause a self-limiting diarrheal illness in humans and a systemic disease in mice. In this study, we report the characteriza...

    Authors: Magdalena Wiesner, Juan J. Calva, Víctor H. Bustamante, Deyanira Pérez-Morales, Marcos Fernández-Mora, Edmundo Calva and Claudia Silva

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:18

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The genus Lactobacillus belongs to a large heterogeneous group of low G + C Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, which are frequently used as probiotics. The health-beneficial effects, in particular the immunomodula...

    Authors: Sabina Górska, Barbara Buda, Ewa Brzozowska, Martin Schwarzer, Dagmar Srutkova, Hana Kozakova and Andrzej Gamian

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:17

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The constitutive inflammation that characterizes advanced age is termed inflamm-aging. This process is associated with age-related changes to immune homeostasis and gut microbiota. We investigated the relation...

    Authors: Kyung-Ah Kim, Jin-Ju Jeong, Sul-Young Yoo and Dong-Hyun Kim

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:9

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Plant microbial communities consist of large numbers of endophyte species. Understanding the functions of these endophytes i...

    Authors: Hanan R. Shehata, Eric M. Lyons, Katerina S. Jordan and Manish N. Raizada

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:8

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Gut bacteria-host interactions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, but few mechanisms have been described. The genetically tractable nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans can be in...

    Authors: Shuzhen Sim and Martin L. Hibberd

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:6

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In this study, we have evaluated the immunological status of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients aiming at identifying putative biomarkers associated with distinct degrees of liver fibrosis. Peripheral b...

    Authors: Soriane de Souza-Cruz, Marilú Barbieri Victória, Andréa Monteiro Tarragô, Allyson Guimarães da Costa, João Paulo Diniz Pimentel, Ericka Florêncio Pires, Lorene de Paula Araújo, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-dos-Reis, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Laurence Rodrigues Amaral, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Flamir da Silva Victória and Adriana Malheiro

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:3

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The probiotic bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens strain S4Sm, isolated from the inner shell surface of a healthy oyster, secretes the antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA), is an excellent biofilm former, and increase...

    Authors: Wenjing Zhao, Christine Dao, Murni Karim, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, David Rowley and David R. Nelson

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2016 16:1

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The symptoms of Clostridium difficile infection are mediated primarily by two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, the expression of which is governed by a multitude of factors including nutrient availability, growth phase and...

    Authors: Stephanie E. Willing, Emma J. Richards, Lluis Sempere, Aaron G. Dale, Simon M. Cutting and Neil F. Fairweather

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:280

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is distinguished mainly by the presence of EPEC adherence factor plasmid (pEAF) in typical EPEC (tEPEC) and its absence in atypical EPEC (aEPEC). The initial adherence to ...

    Authors: Claudia T. P. Moraes, Juliana M. Polatto, Sarita S. Rossato, Mariana Izquierdo, Danielle D. Munhoz, Fernando H. Martins, Daniel C. Pimenta, Mauricio J. Farfan, Waldir P. Elias, Ângela S. Barbosa and Roxane M. F. Piazza

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:278

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The vaginal microbiota can impact the susceptibility of women to bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). BV is characterized by depletion of Lactobacillus spp., an overgrowth of anaer...

    Authors: Laura M. Breshears, Vonetta L. Edwards, Jacques Ravel and Marnie L. Peterson

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:276

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Small-molecule compounds that inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be used not only as drug candidates, but also as reagents to dissect the life cycle of the virus. Thus, it is des...

    Authors: Ru Bai, Xing-Jie Zhang, Yan-Li Li, Jing-Ping Liu, Hong-Bin Zhang, Wei-Lie Xiao, Jian-Xin Pu, Han-Dong Sun, Yong-Tang Zheng and Li-Xin Liu

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:274

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the most common Gram-negative pathogens in otitis media and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NTHi has been reported to invade bronchial ep...

    Authors: Masaki Ikeda, Noriyuki Enomoto, Dai Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Naoki Inui, Yutaro Nakamura, Takafumi Suda and Toshi Nagata

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:263

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Burkholderia mallei (Bm) are Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogens, which are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectiv...

    Authors: Chih-Yuan Chiang, Ricky L. Ulrich, Melanie P. Ulrich, Brett Eaton, Jenifer F. Ojeda, Douglas J. Lane, Krishna P. Kota, Tara A. Kenny, Jason T. Ladner, Samuel P. Dickson, Kathleen Kuehl, Rahul Raychaudhuri, Mei Sun, Sina Bavari, Mark J. Wolcott, David Covell…

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:259

    Content type: Research article

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  28. 14-3-3 proteins comprise a family of eukaryotic multifunctional proteins involved in several cellular processes. The Pb14-3-3 of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis seems to play an important role in the Paracoccidioid...

    Authors: Patricia Akemi Assato, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Caroline Maria Marcos, Danuza Rossi, Sandro Roberto Valentini, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Cleslei Fernando Zanelli and Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:256

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Seafood is not considered the natural habitat of Salmonella except the river fish, but still, the incidence of Salmonella in seafood is in a steady rise. By extending our understanding of Salmonella growth dynami...

    Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Tirtha K. Datta and Kuttanappilly V. Lalitha

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:254

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Microbiological assays require accurate and reproducible preparation of bacterial inocula. Inocula prepared on different days by different individuals can vary significantly from experiment to experiment. This...

    Authors: Travis B. Nielsen, Kevin W. Bruhn, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Justin L. Junus and Brad Spellberg

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:252

    Content type: Methodology article

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  31. Due to its extraordinary chemical properties, the cysteine amino acid residue is often involved in protein folding, electron driving, sensing stress, and binding metals such as iron or zinc. Lactococcus lactis, a...

    Authors: Célia Roussel, Bénédicte Cesselin, Rémy Cachon and Philippe Gaudu

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:246

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are complex, amphipathic biomolecules that constitute the major surface component of Gram-negative bacteria. Leptospira, unlike other human-pathogenic spirochetes, produce LPS, which is ...

    Authors: Kailash P. Patra, Biswa Choudhury, Michael M. Matthias, Sheyenne Baga, Keya Bandyopadhya and Joseph M. Vinetz

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:244

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL) is a potent, biosafe, antifungal protein that exhibits fungicidal activity against different phytopathogenic fungi, including Rhizoctonia solani.

    Authors: Prithwi Ghosh, Amit Roy, Daniel Hess, Anupama Ghosh and Sampa Das

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:237

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human pathogen that is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract infections. It has also been suggested that C. pneumoniae infection can trigge...

    Authors: Xianbao He, Yanmei Liang, Michael P. LaValley, Juying Lai and Robin R. Ingalls

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:228

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS. The cyclic-AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signal transduction pathway regulates the pro...

    Authors: Jennifer M. H. Geddes, Daniel Croll, Mélissa Caza, Nikolay Stoynov, Leonard J. Foster and James W. Kronstad

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:206

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Candida parapsilosis and C. tropicalis increasingly compete with C. albicans—the most common fungal pathogen in humans—as causative agents of severe candidiasis in immunocompromised pa...

    Authors: Andrzej Kozik, Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Dorota Zajac, Oliwia Bochenska, Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Urszula Jankowska and Maria Rapala-Kozik

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:197

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Koumiss is a traditionally fermented mare’s milk described with health-promoting potentials for decades. However, only a few studies focused on the probiotic strains isolated from koumiss. In this study, we co...

    Authors: Jingjing Rong, Houfeng Zheng, Ming Liu, Xu Hu, Tao Wang, Xingwei Zhang, Feng Jin and Li Wang

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:196

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens (class Mollicutes), transmitted by phloem feeding leafhoppers, planthoppers and psyllids in a persistent/propagative manner. Transmission of phytoplasmas is under the...

    Authors: Mahnaz Rashidi, Luciana Galetto, Domenico Bosco, Andrea Bulgarelli, Marta Vallino, Flavio Veratti and Cristina Marzachì

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:193

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Several experimental animal models have been used to study the pathogenesis of dengue disease; however, most of the studies used laboratory-adapted viruses, which lack the virulence of viruses circulating in h...

    Authors: Veridiana Ester Barros, Nilton Nascimento dos Santos-Junior, Alberto Anastacio Amarilla, Adriana Moreira Soares, Rafael Lourencini, Amanda Cristina Trabuco and Victor Hugo Aquino

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:189

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widely distributed among plant-associated bacteria. Certain strains of the Pseudomonas syringae complex can further metabolize IAA into a less biologically active am...

    Authors: Melissa G. Castillo-Lizardo, Isabel M. Aragón, Vivian Carvajal, Isabel M. Matas, María Luisa Pérez-Bueno, María-Trinidad Gallegos, Matilde Barón and Cayo Ramos

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:165

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Chlamydia spp. are believed to use a conserved virulence factor called type III secretion (T3S) to facilitate the delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial pathogen to the host cell. Important early effect...

    Authors: David C. Bulir, Daniel A. Waltho, Christopher B. Stone, Steven Liang, Christopher K. W. Chiang, Kenneth A. Mwawasi, Jordan C. Nelson, Steven W. Zhang, Samantha P. Mihalco, Zachariah C. Scinocca and James B. Mahony

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:163

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) is tightly controlled by host cellular actin dynamics, which require close modulation of the ADF (actin depolymerizing factor)/co...

    Authors: Zhiyao Bao, Xuelin Han, Fangyan Chen, Xiaodong Jia, Jingya Zhao, Changjian Zhang, Chen Yong, Shuguang Tian, Xin Zhou and Li Han

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2015 15:161

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects hundreds of species including humans, and has evolved to grow efficiently within a plethora of cell types. RipA is a conserved membrane protein of...

    Authors: Cheryl N Miller, Shaun P Steele, Jason C Brunton, Ronald J Jenkins, Eric D LoVullo, Sharon A Taft-Benz, Artur Romanchuk, Corbin D Jones, Garry D Dotson, Edward J Collins and Thomas H Kawula

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2014 14:336

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The very-preterm infant gut microbiota is increasingly explored due to its probable role in the development of life threatening diseases. Results of high-throughput studies validate and renew the interest in a...

    Authors: Fabien Aujoulat, Laurent Roudière, Jean-Charles Picaud, Aurélien Jacquot, Anne Filleron, Dorine Neveu, Thierry-Pascal Baum, Hélène Marchandin and Estelle Jumas-Bilak

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2014 14:325

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Pathogenic chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens and have adapted successfully to human cells, causing sexually transmitted diseases or pneumonia. Chlamydial outer protein N (CopN) is likely a critic...

    Authors: Kasumi Ishida, Junji Matsuo, Yoshimasa Yamamoto and Hiroyuki Yamaguchi

    Citation: BMC Microbiology 2014 14:330

    Content type: Research article

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