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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants and differences in the composition of gut microbiota between groups

From: Gut microbiota differs in composition between adults with type 1 diabetes with or without depression and healthy control participants: a case-control study

Characteristics Type 1 diabetes (n = 20) Type 1 diabetes and depression (n = 20) Healthy control group (n = 20) Total sample (N = 60)
Age (in years) 42.20 ± 15.05 43.45 ± 12.07 41.85 ± 14.15 42.19 ± 13.89
Female sex 13 (65.0%) 13 (65.0%) 13 (65.0%) 39 (65.0%)
Years of formal education**     
 0–10 4 (20.0%) 13 (65.0%) 3 (15.0%) 20 (33.3%)
 > 10 16 (80.0%) 7 (35.0%) 17 (85.0%) 40 (66.7%)
Diabetes duration (in years) 16.20 ± 12.56 20.75 ± 13.09
 Body-Mass-Index (BMI)** 23.76 ± 2.65 27.15 ± 4.18 24.19 ± 2.72 25.03 ± 3.55
 Smoking (yes)* 2 (10.0%) 6 (30.0%) 1 (5.0%) 9 (15.0%)
Dietary habits     
 No special diet 18 (90.0%) 14 (70.0%) 17 (85.0%) 49 (81.7%)
 Vegetarian 2 (10.0%) 2 (10.0%) 2 (10.0%) 6 (10.0%)
 Vegan 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
 Other diets 0 (0.0%) 4 (20.0%) 1 (5.0%) 5 (8.3%)
Contraceptives (yes) 4 (20.0%) 2 (10.0%) 4 (20.0%) 10 (16.7%)
 Further somatic diseases (yes)** 13 (65.0%) 18 (90.0%) 9 (40.0%) 40 (66.7%)
 Arterial hypertension 4 (20.0%) 4 (20.0%) 4 (20.0%) 12 (20.0%)
 Thyroid diseases** 8 (40.0%) 11 (55.0%) 2 (10.0%) 21 (35.0%)
 Hypercholesterolemia 4 (20.0%) 4 (20.0%) 0 (0.0%) 8 (13.3%)
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein
(hs-CRP (mg/dl))
1.59 ± 2.70 2.13 ± 2.66 2.28 ± 3.88 2.00 ± 3.11
Major depression (Mini-DIPS)     
 Single episode 5 (25.0%)
 Recurrent episodes 15 (75.0%)
Severity of depression
(PHQ-9, range 0–27)***
6.05 ± 3.75 14.15 ± 3.54 1.80 ± 1.24 7.33 ± 5.98
TICS-SSCS (range 0–48)*** 13.25 ± 9.78 27.80 ± 7.04 8.15 ± 4.66 16.40 ± 11.15
PAID sum score (range 0–100)*** 20.55 ± 17.28 41.81 ± 15.31
Alpha diversity: Differences in the composition of gut microbiota between groups
 Number of species*** 747.55 ± 44.30 737.75 ± 55.96 647.00 ± 83.21 711.85 ± 76.59
 Shannon index*** 4.59 ± 0.20 4.61 ± 0.22 4.18 ± 0.45 4.47 ± 0.36
 ACE‡ 807.17 ± 46.82 800.60 ± 59.09 711.60 ± 86.24 774.16 ± 77.90
 CHAO1* 788.59 ± 44.98 785.42 ± 61.22 702.20 ± 90.01 759.70 ± 77.49
Abundances of different taxonomic levels (numbers and relative abundance): Differences between groups (only significant results)
 Phyla     
  Firmicutes     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
41,950 ± 7755
0.39 ± 0.07
44,022 ± 9014
0.41 ± 0.08
37,190 ± 7583
0.34 ± 0.07
41,120 ± 8507
0.38 ± 0.08
  Bacteroidetes     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
56,430 ± 8806
0.52 ± 0.08
52,814 ± 8981
0.49 ± 0.08
59,305 ± 8434
0.55 ± 0.08
56,130 ± 9002
0.52 ± 0.08
  Actinobacteria     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
383 ± 345
0.0035 ± 0.0032
446 ± 220
0.0041 ± 0.0020
544 ± 294
0.0063 ± 0.0027
456 ± 293
0.0042 ± 0.0027
 Orders     
  Lactobacillales     
  Numbers
  Relative abundance
93 ± 58
9e-4 ± 5e-4
117 ± 139
1e-3 ± 1.2e-3
1023 ± 971
9e-3 ± 9e-3
401 ± 698
4e-3 ± 6e-3
 Families     
  Veillonellaceae (Phylum Firmicutes)*     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
934 ± 569
0.006 ± 0.004
2647 ± 2228
0.02 ± 0.01
1770 ± 2487
0.01 ± 0.02
1784 ± 2039
0.01 ± 0.01
  Christensenellaceae (Phylum Firmicutes)***     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
2268 ± 940
0.01 ± 0.006
1935 ± 949
0.01 ± 0.006
834 ± 799
0.005 ± 0.005
1693 ± 1082
0.01 ± 0.007
  Lactobacillaceae (Phylum Firmicutes)***     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
19 ± 11
0.0001 ± 0.00007
55 ± 177
0.0003 ± 0.001
741 ± 721
0.005 ± 0.004
264 ± 531
0.001 ± 0.003
  Leuconostocaceae (Phylum Firmicutes)***     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
0.35 ± 1
0.000002 ± 0.000006
1,6 ± 3.7
0.00001 ± 0.00002
288 ± 493
0.002 ± 0.003
93 ± 306
0.0006 ± 0.002
  Succinivibrionaceae (Phylum Proteobacteria)***     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
1668 ± 3551
0.01 ± 0.02
3326 ± 5454
0.02 ± 0.03
75 ± 326
0.0005 ± 0.003
1717 ± 3960
0.01 ± 0.02
  Rhodospirillaceae (Phylum Proteobacteria)*     
   Numbers
   Relative abundance
1995 ± 1585
0.01 ± 0.01
1998 ± 1494
0.01 ± 0.01
928 ± 1632
0.005 ± 0.007
1652 ± 1623
0.01 ± 0.01
  1. Note: Plus-minus values are means ± standard deviation; higher PAID scores indicate more diabetes related stress; higher PHQ-9 scores indicate higher depression severity; higher TICS-SSCS scores indicate higher general stress level; higher Shannon index, ACE and CHAO1 indicate higher alpha diversity
  2. * = significant differences between groups P < 0.05
  3. ** = significant differences between groups P < 0.01
  4. *** = significant differences between groups P < 0.001