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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 303 men in the Men’s Lifestyle Validation study according to the dietary and plasma lignan levelsa

From: Dietary lignans, plasma enterolactone levels, and metabolic risk in men: exploring the role of the gut microbiome

  Combination of dietary lignans and plasma enterolactone (EL) levels3 Total (n = 466)
Low lignans Low EL (n = 141) High lignans Low EL (n = 92) Low lignans High EL (n = 93) High lignans High EL (n = 140)
Basic characteristics1
 Enterolactone (nM) 9.4 (4.4) 10.0 (4.1) 36.6 (22.9)a 56.0 (22.9)a 29.3 (34.3)
 Lignans (µg/day) 440 (138) 3809 (6996)a 465 (133) 8826 (15,996)a 3633 (10,209)
 Secoisolariciresinol (µg/day) 119 (54) 2561 (6866) 128 (54) 7862 (15,970)a 2957 (10,081)
 Matairesinol (µg/day) 21 (9) 40 (23)a 23 (9) 45 (24)a 32 (21)
 Lariciresinol (µg/day) 167 (62) 425 (222)a 173 (57) 448 (215)a 301 (206)
 Pinoresinol (µg/day) 134 (72) 560 (777)a 140 (69) 479 (495)a 320 (458)
 Energy intake (kcal/day) 2279 (508) 2400 (423) 2176 (416) 2414 (463) 2164 (664)
 Alcohol (g/day) 19.8 (23.4) 20.0 (18.9) 15.1 (16.3) 18.2 (18.4) 18.4 (19.2)
 Age (year) 70.9 (4.5) 70.5 (4.0) 71.8 (4.0) 71.0 (4.2) 71.0 (4.2)
 Total physical activity (MET-hrs/week) 120 (63) 126 (62)a 112 (58) 118 (51) 117 (56.4)
 White (%) 95.9 96.6 98.5 97.5 97.0
 Smoking (%) 2.2 0.8 2.0 0.0 1.3
 Antibiotics use in last 12 months (%) 27.0 26.5 29.5 23.2 26.6
 Probiotics use ≥ 1time/week (other than yogurt) in last 2 months (%) 7.0 5.6 5.5 8.5 6.9
Metabolic risk factors2
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 177 (31.6) 180 (35.9) 187 (38.8) 186 (33.6)a 182 (35.0)
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 2.3 (3.9) 1.6 (3.1) 1.8 (3.2) 1.2 (2.1)a 1.8 (3.3)
 HDL-C (mg/dL) 52.5 (14.0) 55.5 (13.3) 57.4 (15.2) 56.7 (13.3)a 55.5 (13.9)
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 112 (70.0) 99.4 (45.0) 91.8 (42.3)a 93.4 (50.5)a 100 (55.9)
 HbA1c % 5.8 (0.4) 5.7 (0.3) 5.8 (0.4) 5.7 (0.3)a 5.7 (0.4)
 Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 26.4 (4.0) 25.5 (4.0) 25.1 (3.3)a 24.3 (3.1)a 25.3 (3.8)
 Metabolic score 13.2 (4.0) 12.0 (3.6) 11.7 (3.8)a 11.2 (3.6)a 12.0 (3.8)
  1. a466 measurements from 303 participants with 163 pairs of repeated measurements
  2. 1High vs low categorization for both lignan intake and enterolactone levels was defined based on the median value of the distribution
  3. 2,3Values are means (SD) for continuous variables; percentages for categorical variables and are standardized to the age distribution (except age itself) of the study population. Comparing to low dietary low plasma lignan group
  4. 1*P < 0.05 after adjustment of age distribution
  5. 2*P < 0.05 after adjustment for repeated measurements (participants ID as random intercept), age, energy intake, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and body mass index at age 21