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Table 2 Comparison between malignant PDAC tissue samples with and without bacterial colonization

From: Role of biliary stent and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the pancreatic tumor microbiome

  Bacterial colonization
(n = 13)
No bacterial colonization
(n = 14)
P value
Male sex, n (%) 9 (69) 9 (64) 0.785
Age (years) 63.7 ± 9.5 64 ± 11.8 0.622
BMI (kg/m2) 28.7 ± 5.2 28.9 ± 3.6 0.934
Tumor stage, n (%)
 IA 0 0 0.434
 IB 2 (15) 5 (36)  
 IIA 2 (15) 3 (21)  
 IIB 8 (62) 6 (43)  
 III 1 (8) 0  
 IV 0 0  
Tumor Location, n (%)
 Head 13 (100) 5 (36) 0.002
 Body 0 3 (21)  
 Tail 0 6 (43)  
Preoperative biliary stent, n (%)
 Stent 12 (92) 4 (29) 0.001
 No Stent 1 (8) 10 (71)  
Stent type, n (%)
 Plastic 6 (46) 1 (7) 0.565
 Metal 5 (38) 2 (14)  
 Unknown 1 (8) 1 (7)  
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, n (%)
 None 7 (54) 10 (71) 0.303
 Gemcitabine 3 (23) 4 (29)  
 Gemcitabine/Paclitaxel 2 (15) 0  
 Gemcitabine/Oxaliplatin 1 (8) 0  
Operative procedure, n (%)
 Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple) 13 (100) 5 (36) 0.0004
 Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy 0 9 (64)  
Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, n (%)
 Cefazolin 5 (38) 7 (50) 0.123
 Cefoxitin 6 (46) 1 (7)  
 Cefotetan 1 (8) 4 (29)  
 Clindamycin 1 (8) 0  
 Levofloxacin 0 1 (7)  
 Unknown 0 1 (7)  
Infectious postoperative complications, n (%)
 None 8 (62) 11 (79) 0.433
 Superficial SSI 1 (8) 2 (14)  
 Deep/organ-space SSI 2 (15) 0  
 Pancreatic anastomotic leak 3 (23) 2 (14)  
Clostridium difficile colitis 2 (15) 0  
 Urinary tract infection 1 (8) 1 (7)  
 Parotiditis 1 (8) 0  
Survival, n (%)
 Short-term survival (<  5 years) 7 (54) 10 (71) 0.616
 Long-term survival (>  5 years) 3 (23) 0  
 Lost to follow up 3 (23) 4 (29)  
  1. Continuous data presented as mean ± standard deviation. Bold indicates statistical significance (P < 0.05). BMI Body mass index, SSI Surgical site infection