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Table 2 Alteration of Metabolites in AD subjects compared with cognitively normal controls

From: Disturbed microbial ecology in Alzheimer’s disease: evidence from the gut microbiota and fecal metabolome

Compound Metabolite Predicted molecular pathways or biological functionsa VIP FC
(AD/NC)
P
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
 Androstane steroids 19-Oxoandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione Steroid hormone biosynthesis 2.4 0.73 0.023
 Fatty acids 5-Butyl-3,4-dimethyl-2-furanundecanoic acid Antixoxidants and radical scavengers 2.1 0.80 0.034
 Steroidal glycosides Trigofoenoside F A compound isolated from fenugreek seeds 1.5 1.07 0.011
 Triterpenoids 22-Angeloylbarringtogenol C A constituent of C. sinensis 3.3 1.22 0.042
 Diterpenoids Sagittariol 2.6 0.87 0.042
 Vitamin D derivatives 1α,25-dihydroxy-3α-methyl-3-deoxyvitamin D3 2.7 0.87 0.031
PG(16:0/0:0)[U] 1.3 0.95 0.019
Organic acids and derivatives
 Amino acids N-Docosahexaenoyl GABA N-Acyl amino acid metabolism 2.3 0.81 0.001
 Hydroxy acids 12-Hydroxydodecanoic acid Substrate of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase 1.6 0.85 0.047
 Amino acids Hypoglycin B Natural toxins 1.4 0.86 0.037
Benzenoids
 Methoxyphenols (4E)-12-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)dodec-4-en-3-one A predicted metabolite generated by BioTransformer 2.1 0.67 0.020
 Benzenediols 5-(3′,5′-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone A tea polyphenol metabolite detected in biological fluids 2.3 0.73 0.041
Organic nitrogen compounds
 Amines N,N-Dimethylsphingosine Regulation of sphingolipid-mediated functions 3.9 1.35 0.032
Organoheterocyclic compounds
 Benzopyrans (5α,8β,9β)-5,9-Epoxy-3,6-megastigmadien-8-ol 1.8 1.23 0.045
Piperidine
 Piperidine 1-ACETYLPIPERIDINE Piperidine metabolism 1.9 0.80 0.041
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, NC cognitively normal control, VIP variable importance in the projection, FC fold change
  2. a Information referencing KEGG pathway database and HDBM database