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Table 1 Comparative data of subinhibitory concentrations related to chitosan hydrogel (CS gel), zinc oxide nanocomposite (ZnONC), and chitosan/zinc oxide nanocomposite hydrogel (ZnONC-CS) effects on biofilm formation and metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans

From: Combinatorial therapy of chitosan hydrogel-based zinc oxide nanocomposite attenuates the virulence of Streptococcus mutans

Experiments Biofilm formation Metabolic activity
% reduction P value % reduction P value
CS gel vs. Control 3.15 0.91 19.75a 0.00
ZnONC 14.23 0.07 30.00a 0.00
ZnONC-CS 33.00a 0.00 45.00a 0.00
ZnONC vs. CS gel 11.08 0.18 10.25 0.06
ZnONC-CS 29.85a 0.00 25.25a 0.00
ZnONC-CS vs. ZnONC 18.77a 0.02 15.00a 0.00
  1. aSignificant statistical differences between groups