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Table 3 Mean ± SEM of water quality parameters in different compartments of an aquaponic system combining both sampling times. Letters present the significant differences between the compartments of the system based on Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test followed by Fisher’s LSD test (α = 5%, n = 6)

From: Environmental parameters and microbial community profiles as indication towards microbial activities and diversity in aquaponic system compartments

  Fish tank Biofilter Sump Hydroponic table RFS inflow RFS outflow Anaerobic digester
Temp [°C] 26.9 ± 0.2ab 27.9 ± 0.3a 25.7 ± 0.5ab 25.1 ± 0.5b 25.4 ± 0.6b 24.9 ± 0.6b 26.1 ± 1.1ab
pH [−] 7.20 ± 0.03ab 7.33 ± 0.07a 7.27 ± 0.02a 7.24 ± 0.05a 7.09 ± 0.03b 7.08 ± 0.03b 7.34 ± 0.07a
EC [μS cm−1] 1748 ± 65b 1743 ± 65b 1731 ± 64b 1721 ± 68b 1720 ± 71b 1716 ± 67b 2984 ± 42a
Oxygen [%] 107.7 ± 3.4a 99.2 ± 1.5a 101.9 ± 5.4a 80.7 ± 6.6b 41.5 ± 8.5c 36.1 ± 3.8c 1.8 ± 0.2d
Redox [mV] 105.4 ± 12.5a 112.9 ± 13.8a 94.8 ± 13.4a 99.9 ± 12.9a 69.1 ± 20.2ab 86.2 ± 15.7a − 298.8 ± 8.0b
TOC [mg L−1] 46.9 ± 3.6d 48.1 ± 3.6d 99.9 ± 4.5c 39.7 ± 2.0d 357.6 ± 200.8bc 131.6 ± 8.5b 3211.2 ± 258.2a
TN [mg L−1] 129.5 ± 9.1bc 105.5 ± 11.7c 133.4 ± 7.9bc 138.9 ± 7.7b 135.3 ± 8.2ab 119.2 ± 7.1bc 613.7 ± 50.3a
NH4+-N [mg L−1] 0.23 ± 0.01bc 0.14 ± 0.03 cd 0.10 ± 0.01d 0.08 ± 0.01d 0.80 ± 0.51b 0.27 ± 0.07bc 215.06 ± 18.86a
NO2-N [mg L−1] 0.05 ± 0.01c 0.06 ± 0.01bc 0.06 ± 0.01c 0.02 ± 0.00d 1.63 ± 0.57a 1.38 ± 0.39ab 0.08 ± 0.03 cd
NO3-N [mg L−1] 132.8 ± 11.5bc 125.4 ± 10.2c 158.8 ± 4.7ab 180.9 ± 16.2a 135.23 ± 12.7abc 129.4 ± 18.3bc 0.5 ± 0.0d
Ca2+ [mg L−1] 94.4 ± 4.4a 79.8 ± 3.2ab 65.6 ± 9.7ab 63.3 ± 7.7b 79.7 ± 4.5ab 81.1 ± 8.2ab 76.2 ± 4.5ab
Mg2+ [mg L−1] 27.1 ± 1.2a 25.1 ± 0.8a 20.7 ± 3.4a 21.9 ± 4.0a 23.9 ± 1.0a 23.7 ± 1.6a 27.2 ± 2.0a
Na+ [mg L−1] 207.9 ± 13.4a 213.1 ± 20.0a 175.6 ± 33.6a 149.4 ± 18.5a 172.5 ± 12.9a 175.5 ± 12.0a 164.6 ± 13.8a
K+ [mg L−1] 60.9 ± 11.6a 93.8 ± 25.4a 70.9 ± 21.4a 52.9 ± 19.8a 36.5 ± 4.0a 55.4 ± 21.7a 68.7 ± 10.7a
SO42−-S [mg L−1] 200.9 ± 42.1a 196.2 ± 14.9a 183.8 ± 63.4a 161.3 ± 59.2a 195.4 ± 53.2a 173.6 ± 41.3a 20.0 ± 0.3b