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Table 3 Insecticidal activities of virulent secondary metabolites of P. temperata temperata (Ptt) and X. hominickii (Xh) against S. exigua. Virulent metabolites were compared with the reference compound produced by a less virulent X. ehlersii (Xe). Bioassays were conducted by hemocoelic injection to L5 larvae. For each treatment dose, 10 larvae were used

From: Virulent secondary metabolites of entomopathogenic bacteria genera, Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, inhibit phospholipase A2 to suppress host insect immunity

Groupa Compoundb LD50 (μg/larva)
(95% CI)
Slope ± SE df χ2
Ptt + Xh IND 5.12 (2.51–10.2) 0.50 ± 0.41 3 0.813
CBA 8.52 (4.2–16.4) 0.47 ± 0.44 3 0.774
NPA 12.79 (6.1–24.5) 0.32 ± 0.59 3 0.953
TPL 7.44 (8.8–34.9) 0.44 ± 0.47 3 0.905
IAAH 14.14 (7.6–27.6) 0.31 ± 0.61 3 0.944
MP 15.15 (7.9–30.3) 0.29 ± 0.66 3 0.993
BA 17.93 (9.3–34.7) 0.31 ± 0.63 3 0.940
BH 22.47 (17.4–62.9) 0.35 ± 0.58 3 0.701
Ptt DHF 4.94 (3.2–8.7) 0.49 ± 0.42 3 0.718
PE 24.28 (12.6–47.5) 0.42 ± 0.49 3 0.819
Xh EH 8.93 (4.8–17.5) 0.43 ± 0.47 3 0.492
EMP 4.29 (2.1–8.4) 0.36 ± 0.53 3 0.926
Xe MT 38.75 (20.0–75.6) 0.38 ± 0.54 3 0.691
  1. aGroup is classified by bacterial compounds specific to (1) both Ptt and Xh (‘Ptt + Xh’), (2) only Ptt (‘Ptt’), (3) only Xh (‘Xh’), and (4) common to Ptt, Xh, and Xe (‘Xe’)
  2. bCompound acronyms are: benzyl alcohol (‘BA’), benzeneethanol-4-hydroxy (‘BH’), o-cyanobenzoic acid (‘CBA’), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (‘DHF’), 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (‘EH’), 3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenol (‘EMP’), indole-3-aceticacid hydrazide (‘IAAH’), indole (‘IND’), 2-mercaptophenol (‘MP’), 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (‘MT’), N-(2-phenylethyl) acetamide (‘NPA’), 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (‘PE’), and tryptophol (‘TPL’)