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Table 1 Comparison of the genes encoding GHs in yak fecal microbiome with five other herbivorous microbiomes

From: Metagenomic insights into the diversity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the yak fecal microbial community

GH family Major activity Yak feces Cow feces [5] Elephant feces [13] Termite gut [18] Cow rumen [19] Camel rumen [14]
Cellulases
 GH5 Cellulase 2.12 2.63 4.43 7.36 4.76 4.44
 GH9 Endoglucanase 0.45 0.77 1.25 1.63 2.23 1.97
 GH44 Endoglucanase 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.54 0.08 0.05
 GH45 Endoglucanase 0.00 0.00 0.08 1.09 0.41 0.13
 GH48 Cellobiohydrolase 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.00
 Sub-total (%)   2.59 3.40 5.82 10.63 7.52 6.59
Endo-hemicellulases
 GH8 Endo-1,4-β-Xylanase 0.10 0.26 0.59 2.18 1.11 0.66
 GH10 Endo-1,4-β-Xylanase 0.84 1.06 2.03 5.45 2.28 2.46
 GH11 Xylanase 0.04 0.00 0.16 1.63 0.50 0.23
 GH26 Xyloglucanase 0.37 1.04 0.90 2.18 1.08 1.43
 GH28 Polygalacturonase 2.21 1.01 2.43 1.36 1.54 3.11
 GH53 Endo-β-1,4-Galactanase 0.57 0.82 0.84 0.82 1.05 1.52
 Sub-total (%)   4.14 4.19 6.95 13.62 7.56 9.41
Debranching enzymes
 GH51 α-L-arabinofuranosidase 1.01 1.13 1.93 0.82 1.85 2.48
 GH54 α-L-arabinofuranosidase 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.00 0.16 0.08
 GH67 α-Glucuronidase 0.08 0.22 0.33 1.36 0.55 0.59
 GH78 α-L-rhamnosidase 4.99 2.85 3.63 0.00 3.21 2.34
 Sub-total (%)   6.09 4.25 5.99 2.18 5.77 5.48
Oligosaccharide degrading enzymes
 GH1 β-glucosidase 0.87 0.24 0.51 1.63 0.36 0.26
 GH2 β-galactosidase 7.49 6.84 7.00 2.45 6.73 6.96
 GH3 β-glucosidase 5.88 5.27 6.22 6.54 8.04 7.39
 GH29 α-L-fucosidase 2.77 2.84 2.93 0.27 2.00 1.62
 GH35 β-galactosidase 0.64 0.51 0.81 0.27 0.32 1.15
 GH38 α-Mannosidase 1.74 0.35 0.80 1.36 0.64 0.26
 GH39 β-xylosidase 1.54 0.27 1.16 1.91 0.93 0.44
 GH42 β-galactosidase 0.57 0.27 0.34 2.18 0.33 0.19
 GH43 β-xylosidase 4.91 6.09 7.23 4.63 6.26 10.56
 GH52 β-xylosidase 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.27 0.00 0.00
 GH94 Cellobiose phosphorylase 0.60 0.57 1.01 8.45 1.32 0.82
 Sub-total (%)   27.03 23.26 28.02 29.97 26.95 29.64
 No. of all genes encoding GHs   71,908 5465 16,852 367 9897 15,959
 Metagenome size   3.51 Gb 0.31Gb 0.93 Gb 0.018Gb 0.79Gb 0.66 Gb
 GHs/Mbp   20.5 17.6 18.1 20.4 12.5 24.2
  1. The table shows the statistics for each microbiome as follows: the percentages of genes belonging to distinct GH families involved in lignocellulose degradation, the number of all genes encoding GHs, the number of total bases in the assembled contigs, and the density of the GH genes in the metagenome assemblies of individual herbivores