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Table 3 Comparison of the features for C. difficile infection among tree shrew, rodents and human

From: Response of the gut microbiota during the Clostridioides difficile infection in tree shrews mimics those in humans

   Tree shrew Rodents (hamster or mouse) Human References
Infective dose 105CFU spores 105− 109 CFU spores or vegetative 9, 19, 27
Routes of infection Oral gavage Oral gavage Fecal-oral transmission 9, 19, 27
Antibiotics administration Antibiotic cocktails Clindamycin treated; Antibiotic cocktails; Cefoperazone treated Antibiotics exposure 9, 17, 18, 19, 27
Disease features Numbers of infection 60% (9/15) exhibited signs of disease at 4 days All hamsters developed diseases; parts of the mouse (58%) showed the clinical signs of CDI at 2 to 4 days Usually happened in elderly patients or antibiotics usage 9, 27
Symptoms or signs Diarrhea; weight loss Wet tail; diarrhea; weight loss From asymptomatic to severe colitis 9, 18, 19, 27
Deaths None Most died within 48 h for hamster; few death occurred for mouse Some cases developed to death 9, 17, 18
Lesion sites Ileum and colon Colon and cecum Colon 9, 17, 18
Gut microbiota changes Normal or before infection Dominated with Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phylum Dominated with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phylum Dominated with Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phylum 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 27
Antibiotics treatments Lower microbial diversity and richness; dominated with Lactobacillus Lower microbial diversity and richness; dominated with Lactobacillus Lower microbial diversity and richness; dominated with Lactobacillus 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 27
After C. difficile infection Proteobacteria, Clostridiales, Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Escherichia increased Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Verrucomicrobiaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased Bacteroidetes, Lachnospiraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia increased 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 27