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Table 4 Logistic regression analyses of factors associated with multiple drug resistance or extensive drug resistance in Haemophilus influenzae

From: Extensively drug-resistant Haemophilus influenzae – emergence, epidemiology, risk factors, and regimen

VariableMultiple drug resistantExtensive drug resistant
UnivariateMultivariateUnivariateMultivariate
Odds ratio (95% CI)POdds ratio (95% CI)POdds ratio (95% CI)POdds ratio (95% CI)P
Demography
 Year0.995 (0.966–1.025)0.735  1.019 (0.938–1.106)0.664  
 Age0.997 (0.993–1.002)0.244  0.994 (0.982–1.006)0.332  
 Gender (Male = 1, Female = 0)0.786 (0.640–0.966)0.0220.769 (0.624–0.946)0.0131.128 (0.615–2.071)0.697  
Specimen type
 Respiratory tracts (Yes = 1, No = 0)1.174 (0.818–1.684)0.385  0.581 (0.258–1.308)0.190  
 Blood (Yes = 1, No = 0)0.683 (0.327–1.428)0.311  4.061 (1.399–11.790)0.0104.069 (1.339–12.365)0.013
 Others (Yes = 1, No = 0)0.923 (0.614–1.386)0.699  0.914 (0.281–2.973)0.881  
 β-lactamase (Positive = 1, Negative   = 0)a0.985 (0.875–1.109)0.802  0.936 (0.671–1.304)0.694  
Specimen source
 Outpatient department (Yes = 1, No = 0)1.141 (0.897–1.451)0.284  1.543 (0.828–2.876)0.172  
 Emergency room (Yes = 1, No = 0)0.861 (0.638–1.162)0.327  0.728 (0.287–1.847)0.504  
 Wards (Yes = 1, No = 0)0.695 (0.570–0.849)< 0.0010.816 (0.648–1.029)0.0860.380 (0.198–0.728)0.0040.517 (0.245–1.091)0.083
 Intensive care units (Yes = 1, No = 0)1.541 (1.240–1.915)< 0.0011.410 (1.094–1.818)0.0082.165 (1.233–3.802)0.0071.695 (0.880–3.265)0.115
Infection route
 Hospital-acquired infection (Yes = 1, No = 0)1.048 (0.789–1.392)0.747  0.394 (0.122–1.274)0.120  
  1. Multiple drug resistance is defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories. Extensive drug resistance is defined as susceptible to only one antimicrobial category. Specimens other than those from respiratory tracts and blood include wound, pus, abscess, body fluids, and tissues. Hospital-acquired infection is defined as an infection occurs after 7 days of hospital admission. an = 933. Abbreviation: CI confidence intervals