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Table 2 Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted mean difference in infant gut microbiota Shannon diversity, assessed from infant stool provided at 3 and 12 months of age, according the timing of complementary food introduction

From: Timing of complementary feeding is associated with gut microbiota diversity and composition and short chain fatty acid concentrations over the first year of life

 Infants at 3 months Infants at 12 months
Difference in gut microbiota Shannon diversity (95% CI)Difference in gut microbiota Shannon diversity (95% CI)
Crude ModelAdjusted ModelCrude ModelAdjusted Model
Complementary foods > 3 months (n = 47)0.0 (ref)0.0 (ref)Complementary foods > 3 months (n = 35)0.0 (ref)0.0 (ref)
Complementary foods ≤3 months (n = 18)0.29*** (0.20, 0.37)0.16** (0.05, 0.28)Complementary foods ≤3 months (n = 14)0.37* (0.16, 0.58)0.31* (0.16, 0.46)
  1. Multivariable-adjusted linear models included adjustment for breastfeeding (ever vs. never), delivery mode, gestational age (> median gestational age vs. ≤ median gestational age), and birth weight (> median birth weight vs. ≤ median birth weight)
  2. * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, and *** = p < 0.001