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Table 1 Characteristics of infant-mother dyads in the Nurture cohort with gut microbiota data at 3 or 12 months, stratified by the timing of complementary food introduction

From: Timing of complementary feeding is associated with gut microbiota diversity and composition and short chain fatty acid concentrations over the first year of life

 Early introduction to complementary foods* (n = 18)Later introduction to complementary foods (n = 49)p-value
Delivery method (%)  0.63
 Vaginal11 (61.11)33 (67.35) 
 C-Section7 (38.89)16 (32.65) 
Pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (%)14 (77.78)32 (65.31)0.33
Maternal age (median [IQR])25.30 [22.48, 29.09]26.55 [23.95, 31.97]0.38
Female sex8 (44.44)22 (44.90)0.97
Infant age at 3 month sample, days (median [IQR])a105.00 [93.25, 117.25]99.00 [93.00, 107.00]0.22
Infant age at 12 month sample, days (median [IQR])b374.00 [367.00, 392.00]371.00 [362.75, 394.50]0.73
Black or African-American infant race13 (72.22)29 (59.18)0.54
Breastfed ever (%)14 (77.78)39 (79.59)0.87
Breastfeeding duration (weeks), median IQR4.5 (1.00, 7.00)4.0 (1.00, 13.04)0.51
Breastfeeding at time of first sample (%)2 (11.11)11 (22.45)0.30
Maternal low educational achievement (%)6 (33.33)25 (51.02)0.20
Income (%)  0.84
  ≤ $20,00011 (61.11)30 (63.83) 
  > $20,0007 (38.89)17 (36.17) 
No infant antibiotics at/before 3 months (%)14 (77.78)41 (83.67)0.58
No infant antibiotics at/before 12 months (%)11 (61.11)25 (51.02)0.46
No current maternal smoking (%)c12 (80.00)36 (80.00)0.99
Birth weight, kg (median [IQR])2.94 [2.82, 3.54]3.23 [2.95, 3.54]0.52
Gestational age, weeks (median [IQR])39.93 [37.71, 40.29]39.29 [38.43, 40.14]0.87
  1. *Early introduction to complementary foods was defined as introduction of any solids or non-water liquids at or before the 3-month study visit, when stool was collected
  2. aAmong the 65 infants who provided a sample at 3 months
  3. bAmong the 49 infants who provided a sample at 12 months
  4. c3 infants given solids early and 4 infants given solids later were missing maternal smoking data for at least 1 time point