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Table 1 Characteristics of infant-mother dyads in the Nurture cohort with gut microbiota data at 3 or 12 months, stratified by the timing of complementary food introduction

From: Timing of complementary feeding is associated with gut microbiota diversity and composition and short chain fatty acid concentrations over the first year of life

  Early introduction to complementary foods* (n = 18) Later introduction to complementary foods (n = 49) p-value
Delivery method (%)    0.63
 Vaginal 11 (61.11) 33 (67.35)  
 C-Section 7 (38.89) 16 (32.65)  
Pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (%) 14 (77.78) 32 (65.31) 0.33
Maternal age (median [IQR]) 25.30 [22.48, 29.09] 26.55 [23.95, 31.97] 0.38
Female sex 8 (44.44) 22 (44.90) 0.97
Infant age at 3 month sample, days (median [IQR])a 105.00 [93.25, 117.25] 99.00 [93.00, 107.00] 0.22
Infant age at 12 month sample, days (median [IQR])b 374.00 [367.00, 392.00] 371.00 [362.75, 394.50] 0.73
Black or African-American infant race 13 (72.22) 29 (59.18) 0.54
Breastfed ever (%) 14 (77.78) 39 (79.59) 0.87
Breastfeeding duration (weeks), median IQR 4.5 (1.00, 7.00) 4.0 (1.00, 13.04) 0.51
Breastfeeding at time of first sample (%) 2 (11.11) 11 (22.45) 0.30
Maternal low educational achievement (%) 6 (33.33) 25 (51.02) 0.20
Income (%)    0.84
  ≤ $20,000 11 (61.11) 30 (63.83)  
  > $20,000 7 (38.89) 17 (36.17)  
No infant antibiotics at/before 3 months (%) 14 (77.78) 41 (83.67) 0.58
No infant antibiotics at/before 12 months (%) 11 (61.11) 25 (51.02) 0.46
No current maternal smoking (%)c 12 (80.00) 36 (80.00) 0.99
Birth weight, kg (median [IQR]) 2.94 [2.82, 3.54] 3.23 [2.95, 3.54] 0.52
Gestational age, weeks (median [IQR]) 39.93 [37.71, 40.29] 39.29 [38.43, 40.14] 0.87
  1. *Early introduction to complementary foods was defined as introduction of any solids or non-water liquids at or before the 3-month study visit, when stool was collected
  2. aAmong the 65 infants who provided a sample at 3 months
  3. bAmong the 49 infants who provided a sample at 12 months
  4. c3 infants given solids early and 4 infants given solids later were missing maternal smoking data for at least 1 time point